By T. Goose. University of Colorado, Denver.
In the case of anti-cathexis bimat 3ml online, this frustration is The term catharsis originated from the Greek word provided internally by one’s own psychic mechanisms cheap bimat 3 ml without prescription. In psycholo- However buy 3 ml bimat, it cannot occur until one has experienced ex- gy buy 3 ml bimat with visa, the term was first employed by Sigmund Freud’s col- ternal frustration, generally in the form of parental disci- league Josef Breuer (1842-1925), who developed a pline. Having been subjected to external controls, one “cathartic” treatment for persons suffering from hysteri- becomes able to develop inner ones. While under hypnosis, Breuer’s patients were able to recall traumatic Cathexes are involved in the repression of memo- experiences, and through the process of expressing the ries, which can be recalled either by weakening the anti- original emotions that had been repressed and forgotten, cathexis or strengthening the cathexis. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psy- ences and the application of scientific knowledge to cre- chological Works of Sigmund Freud. Ultimately, Cattell adopted the practice of testing a New York: Human Sciences Press, 1989. He was disappointed to find that, not only 1860-1944 did sensory performance fail to relate to academic suc- American pioneer in psychological research tech- cess, the different sensory measures did not even corre- niques and founder of a psychological testing com- late with one another. James McKeen Cattell developed an approach to Even though Cattell’s research on intelligence was psychological research that continues to dominate the unsuccessful, he nonetheless exerted a dramatic influ- field of psychology today. During his ca- years, most research focused on the sensory responses of reer at Columbia University, more students earned single individuals studied in depth because Wilhelm doctorates in psychology with him than with any other Wundt (1832-1920), the first experimental psychologist, psychologist. For example, he founded perspective diverged greatly from Wundt’s, and Cattell the journal Psychological Review with another promi- developed techniques that allowed him to study groups nent psychologist, J. Mark Baldwin (1861-1934), then of people and the individual differences among them. He traveled to the tell also helped start the American Association for the University of Göttingen to study with the philosopher Advancement of Science, one of the premier scientific Rudolf Hermann Lotze (1817-1881) and later with organizations in America today. Stanley Hall ingly, as his editing and publishing increased, his re- (1844-1924), one of America’s most famous psycholo- search diminished. Apparently, Cattell’s relationship with Hall was less than positive, and Cattell did not complete his doc- Cattell left the academic world in 1917 when Co- toral work at that time. When he was with Hall, howev- lumbia University dismissed him because of his unpopu- er, Cattell developed an interest in studying psychologi- lar opposition to sending draftees into battle in the first cal processes. He sued the University for libel and won $40,000 in court, but he did not return to the institution. Subsequently, he returned to Leipzig and earned his Instead, he attempted further application of psychologi- doctorate with Wundt, although his correspondence with cal testing when he founded the Psychological Corpora- his parents revealed that Cattell did not hold Wundt in tion, a company organized to promote commercial psy- high esteem as a scientist. His entrepreneurial abilities failed him ters also depict Cattell as arrogant, self-confident, and in this endeavor, however; the company earned only disrespectful of others. After he left, the or- proved on existing psychological instrumentation and in- ganization began to prosper, and today, the Psychologi- vented new ways to study psychological processes. Cattell contin- After leaving Germany, Cattell taught briefly in the ued his work as a spokesperson for applied psychology United States, then traveled to England and worked with until his death. Raymond Bernard Cattell 1905-1998 American psychologist who designed personality and intelligence tests and espoused controversial theories of eugenics. In a career spanning over half a century he wrote more than 50 books and 500 research articles, and his contributions to personality and intelligence testing are widely regarded as invaluable. Yet some of his theories about natural selection, particularly as put forth in a philos- ophy known as Beyondism, were attacked as racist and caused a bitter controversy only months before his death. Cattell was born in Hilltop, England, on March 20, Raymond Cattell (Archives of the History of American 1905. He attended the University of London, where he received his undergraduate degree in chemistry in 1924 and his Ph. He Cattell retired from the University of Illinois in 1973 taught briefly and worked at a psychology clinic until and after five years in Colorado moved to Hawaii. There, 1937, when he moved to the United States to take a teach- he accepted a part-time position at the University of ing position at Columbia University. From there he moved Hawaii, where he continued to teach, conduct research, on to Clark University and Harvard before arriving in 1946 and write. He also took the opportunity to spend leisure at the University of Illinois, where he stayed for 27 years. Innovator of personality tests Beyondism and a storm of controvery During the Second World War, in addition to his teaching duties, Cattell worked in the Adjutant General’s The publication of Beyondism: Religion from Sci- office, where he devised psychological tests for the mili- ence in 1987 dramatically altered the remainder of Cat- tary. Throughout his career, Cattell created a number of tell’s life as well as his scientific legacy. Cattell intended such tests to measure intelligence and to assess personal- the book to be a discussion of his theories on evolution ity traits. However, his advocacy of eugenics personality traits, such as emotional stability (easily (the study of improving the human race), was extremely upset vs. Cattell measured with what Cattell calls “second-order factors,” claimed, for example, that among the tenets of Be- including extroversion, anxiety, and independence. The yondism was the idea that races as we know them today test is still widely used by corporations and institutions would not exist in the future. The fact that Cattell had ac- knowledged Arthur Jensen and William Shockley— two scientists who had claimed that blacks were geneti- cally less intelligent than whites—in his book only fur- thered people’s suspicions. Cattell, ninety-two years old and in failing health, attempted to resolve the furor by declining the award. He asserted that he detested racism, and that he had only ever advo- cated voluntary eugenics. His health declined further, and he died quietly on February 2, 1998, at home in Hawaii. Milite Further Reading The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous Cattell, Raymond B. At the right is a magnified view of the spinal cord York Praeger Publishers, 1987. Factor Analysis: An Introduction and individual axon covered with a myelin sheath. The junction between the axon of one cell and the dendrite of another is a minute gap, eighteen millionths of an inch wide, which is called a synapse. Central nervous system The spinal cord is a long bundle of neural tissue In humans, that portion of the nervous system that continuous with the brain that occupies the interior lies within the brain and spinal cord; it receives im- canal of the spinal column and functions as the primary pulses from nerve cells throughout the body, regu- lates bodily functions, and directs behavior. It is the origin of 31 bilateral pairs of spinal nerves which radiate outward from the central nervous system The central nervous system contains billions of through openings between adjacent vertebrae. The spinal nerve cells, called neurons, and a greater number of sup- cord receives signals from the peripheral senses and re- port cells, or glia. Its sensory neurons, which send the only function of glial cells—whose name means sense data to the brain, are called afferent, or receptor, “glue”—was to hold the neurons together, but current re- neurons; motor neurons, which receive motor commands search suggests a more active role in facilitating commu- from the brain, are called efferent, or effector, neurons. The neurons, which consist of three elements— dendrites, cell body, and axon—send electrical impulses The brain is a mass of neural tissue that occupies the from cell to cell along pathways which receive, process, cranial cavity of the skull and functions as the center of store, and retrieve information. It is com- posed of three primary divisions: the forebrain, midbrain, Cerebral cortex and hindbrain, which are divided into the left and right hemispheres and control multiple functions such as re- See Brain ceiving sensory messages, movement, language, regulat- ing involuntary body processes, producing emotions, thinking, and memory. The first division, the forebrain, is the largest and most complicated of the brain structures and is responsible for most types of complex mental ac- Character tivity and behavior. It is involved in a huge array of re- sponses, including initiating movements, receiving sensa- General term in psychology used to describe be- tions, emoting, thinking, talking, creating, and imagining. Its parts, which are covered by the Character is most often used in reference to a set of cerebral cortex, include the corpus callosum, striatum, basic innate, developed, and acquired motivations that septum, hippocampus, and amygdala.
Some research and clinical observation sug- will ultimately decide in favor of the adoptive placement order 3 ml bimat with mastercard. Why do I have this musical is the risk that the adoption may not be finalized and that ability? Other important the child will be returned to his or her birth parents buy discount bimat 3ml on-line, so- medical history may be critical to the adoptee’s health cial service agencies generally do not recommend such care planning discount 3 ml bimat amex. For birth mothers safe 3ml bimat, sometimes they simply placements unless, in their best judgments, the potential want to know that their child turned out okay. The move to open records lead to an increase in Whether the child is free for adoption or a legal risk open adoptions in which information is shared from the placement, there is generally a waiting period before the beginning. Open adoptions may be completely open, as adoption is finalized or recognized by the courts. Al- is the case when the birth parents (usually the mother) though estimates vary, about 10% of adoptions disrupt, and adoptive parents meet beforehand and agree to main- that is, the child is removed from the family before final- tain contact while the child is growing up. This figure has risen with the increase in older has full knowledge of both sets of parents. The Other open adoptions may include less contact, or risk of disruption increases with the age of the child at periodic letters sent to an intermediary agency, or contin- placement, a history of multiple placements prior to the ued contact with some family members but not others. In the case of an older child who estingly, many children who have experienced disruption is removed from the family by protective services be- go on to be successfully adopted, suggesting that disrup- cause of abuse or neglect, the child clearly knows his tion is often a bad fit between parental expectations, birth parents as well as any other siblings. Many agencies lings are also removed and placed in different adoptive conduct parent support groups for adoptive families, and homes, it may be decided that periodic visits between the some states have instituted training programs to alert the children—once every few months, perhaps—should prospective adoptive parents to the challenges—as well be maintained, but that contact with the abusive parents as the rewards—of adopting special needs children, should be terminated until the child reaches adulthood thereby attempting to minimize the risk of disruption. Siblings may know each other’s placements, but the birth parents may have no Who gets adopted? According to the National Committee for Adoption, 7-year-old child begins to understand the salience and there were just over 100,000 domestic adoptions in the implications of being adopted. Of unrelated domestic adoptees, adoptees is low even though it may be statistically higher about 40% were placed by public agencies, 30% by pri- than the corresponding figures for non-adoptees. Almost half In the course of normal development, adolescence of these adoptees were under the age of two, and about is seen as a time of identity formation and emerging in- one-quarter had special needs. Adopted adolescents are faced with the 10,000 international adoptions, the majority of these chil- challenge of integrating disparate sources of identity— dren under the age of two and placed by private agencies. For some this is lected data through the Voluntary Cooperative Informa- a difficult task and may result in rebellious or depressive tion System on children in welfare systems across the behavior, risks for all adolescents. Problems associated with adoption may not always be the result of psychological adjustment to adoption sta- Adoptions may be arranged privately through indi- tus or a reflection of less than optimal family dynamics. The objectives of public and private fants may be genetically inherited from the birth parents agencies can differ somewhat. Private agencies generally and perhaps reflected in the impulsive behavior that re- have prospective adoptive parents as their clients and the sulted in the child’s birth in the first place. Public agencies, children who have been removed from the home because on the other hand, have children as their clients and the of the trauma of abuse, the hypervigilance used to cope procurement of parents as their primary mission. Many studies are cross-sec- tion, however, the conclusions are less robust and the in- tional rather than longitudinal by design, meaning that terpretation of the statistics is not clear. Adopted adoles- different groups of children at different ages are studied cents, for example, receive mental health services more rather than the same children being followed over a peri- often than their non-adopted peers, but this may be be- od of time. It is also difficult to establish what control or cause adoptive families are more likely to seek helping comparison groups should be used. Should adopted chil- services or because once referring physicians or coun- dren be compared to other children in the types of fami- selors know that a child is adopted they assume there are lies into which they have been adopted or should they be likely to be problems warranting professional attention. These are complex issues When adjustment problems are manifested by because adoptees are a heterogeneous group, and it is as adoptees, they tend to occur around school age or during important to understand their individual differences as it adolescence. A person’s affect is the expression of emotion or feelings displayed to others through facial expressions, Deutsch, D. Maintains copies of all state and federal adoption laws, including Public Law 96-272, The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Affiliation Act of 1980. Attachment is one of 20 psychological needs measured by the Thematic Apperception Test,a projective personality test developed at Harvard Uni- versity in 1935 by Henry Murray. Subjects look at a Affective disorders series of up to 20 pictures of people in a variety of rec- ognizable settings and construct a story about what is See Bipolar disorder; Depression; Mania happening in each one. At- aggression in terms of a death wish or instinct (Thanatos) tributions, Accounts, and Close Relationships. New York: that is turned outward toward others in a process called Springer-Verlag, 1992. Child Psychology: Development and Be- toward a specific person or group may be expressed indi- havior Analysis. Biological theories of aggression have also viewer’s arousal, desensitizing viewers to violence, re- been advanced by ethologists, researchers who study the ducing restraints on aggressive behavior, and distorting behavior of animals in their natural environments. The view of ag- in the modeling of violence—both live and on screen—is gression as an innate instinct common to both humans seeing not only that aggressive behavior occurs, but also and animals was popularized in three widely read books that it works. If the violent parent, playmate, or super- of the 1960s—On Aggression by Konrad Lorenz, The hero is rewarded rather than punished for violent behav- Territorial Imperative by Robert Ardrey, and The Naked ior, that behavior is much more likely to serve as a posi- Ape by Desmond Morris. Like Freud’s Thanatos, the ag- tive model: a child will more readily imitate a model gressive instinct postulated by these authors builds up who is being rewarded for an act than one who is being spontaneously—with or without outside provocation— punished. In this way, the child can learn without actual- until it is likely to be discharged with minimal or no ly being rewarded or punished himself—a concept provocation from outside stimuli. Today, instinct theories of aggression are largely The findings of social learning theory address not discredited in favor of other explanations. One is the only the acquisition, but also the instigation, of aggres- frustration-aggression hypothesis first set forth in the sion. Once one has learned aggressive behavior, what en- 1930s by John Dollard, Neal Miller, and several col- vironmental circumstances will activate it? This theory proposes that aggression, rather vious are adverse events, including not only frustration than occurring spontaneously for no reason, is a re- of desires but also verbal and physical assaults. Model- sponse to the frustration of some goal-directed behavior ing, which is important in the learning of aggression, can by an outside source. If the modeled behavior is rewarded, environmental stimulus must produce not just frustration the reward can act vicariously as an incentive for aggres- but anger in order for aggression to follow, and that the sion in the observer. In addition, modeled aggression anger can be the result of stimuli other than frustrating may serve as a source of emotional arousal. Some aggression is motivated by reward: aggressive In contrast to instinct theories, social learning theo- behavior can be a means of obtaining what one wants. This ap- Another motive for aggression is, paradoxically, obedi- proach stresses the roles that social influences, such as ence. People have committed many violent acts at the models and reinforcement, play in the acquisition of ag- bidding of another, in both military and civilian life. The work of Albert Bandura,a Other possible motivating factors include stressors in prominent researcher in the area of social learning, has one’s physical environment, such as crowding, noise, demonstrated that aggressive behavior is learned through and temperature, and the delusions resulting from men- a combination of modeling and reinforcement. In addition to the acquisition and instigation are influenced by observing aggressive behavior in their of aggression, various types of reinforcement, both direct parents and peers, and in cultural forms such as movies, and vicarious, help determine whether aggression is television, and comic books. Quantitative childhood characteristics are predictors of aggression in studies have found that network television averages 10 adults.
They experience a greater than average number of accidents buy 3 ml bimat with amex, from minor mishaps to more serious incidents that may lead to physical injury or the destruction of property purchase bimat 3 ml with visa. The conduct is more serious than the ordinary mischief and pranks of children and adolescents buy cheap bimat 3 ml on-line. The disorder is more common in boys than in girls discount 3ml bimat fast delivery, and the behaviors may continue into adulthood, often meeting the criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Con- duct disorder is divided into two subtypes based on the age at onset: childhood-onset type (onset of symptoms before age 10 years) and adolescent-onset type (absence of symptoms before age 10 years). The term temperament refers to personality traits that become evident very early in life and may be present at birth. Evidence suggests a genetic component in temperament and an association between temperament and behavioral problems later in life. Twin studies have revealed a signiﬁcantly higher number of conduct disorders among those who have family members with the disorder. Peers play an essential role in the socialization of interpersonal competence, and skills acquired in this manner affect the child’s long- term adjustment. Studies have shown that poor peer re- lations during childhood were consistently implicated in the etiology of later deviance (Ladd, 1999). Aggression was found to be the principal cause of peer rejection, thus contributing to a cycle of maladaptive behavior. The following factors related to family dynamics have been implicated as contributors in the predisposition to this disorder (Foley et al. The behavior pattern manifests itself in virtually all areas of the child’s life (home, school, with peers, and in the commu- nity). The use of tobacco, liquor, or nonprescribed drugs, as well as the participation in sexual activities, occurs earlier than the peer group’s expected age. Characteristics include poor frustration tolerance, irritabil- ity, and frequent temper outbursts. The disorder typically begins by 8 years of age and usually not later than early adolescence. The disorder is more prevalent in boys than in girls and is often a developmental antecedent to conduct disorder. It is thought that some par- ents interpret average or increased levels of developmen- tal oppositionalism as hostility and a deliberate effort on the part of the child to be in control. If power and con- trol are issues for parents, or if they exercise authority for their own needs, a power struggle can be established between the parents and the child that sets the stage for the development of oppositional deﬁant disorder. Characterized by passive-aggressive behaviors such as stub- bornness, procrastination, disobedience, carelessness, nega- tivism, testing of limits, resistance to directions, deliberately ignoring the communication of others, and unwillingness to compromise. Other symptoms that may be evident are running away, school avoidance, school underachievement, temper tantrums, ﬁght- ing, and argumentativeness. In severe cases, there may be elective mutism, enuresis, en- copresis, or eating and sleeping problems. Common Nursing Diagnoses and Interventions for Clients with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (Interventions are applicable to various health care settings, such as in- patient and partial hospitalization, community outpatient clinic, home health, and private practice. Client will seek out staff at any time if thoughts of harming self or others should occur. Do this through rou- tine activities and interactions to avoid appearing watchful and suspicious. Clients at high risk for violence require close observation to prevent harm to self or others. Observe for suicidal behaviors: verbal statements, such as “I’m going to kill myself” or “Very soon my mother won’t have to worry herself about me any longer,” or nonverbal be- haviors, such as giving away cherished items or mood swings. Most clients who attempt suicide have communicated their intent, either verbally or nonverbally. Obtain verbal or written contract from client agreeing not to harm self and agreeing to seek out staff in the event that such ideation occurs. Discussion of suicidal feelings with a trusted individual provides a degree of relief to client. A contract gets the subject out in the open and places some of the re- sponsibility for his or her safety with client. Help client to recognize when anger occurs and to accept those feelings as his or her own. Have client keep an “anger note- book,” in which a record of anger experienced on a 24-hour basis is kept. Information regarding source of anger, behav- ioral response, and client’s perception of the situation should also be noted. Discuss entries with client, suggesting alterna- tive behavioral responses for those identiﬁed as maladaptive. Act as a role model for appropriate expression of angry feel- ings, and give positive reinforcement to client for attempting to conform. It is vital that client express angry feelings, be- cause suicide and other self-destructive behaviors are often viewed as a result of anger turned inward on the self. Anxiety and tension can be relieved safely and with beneﬁt to client in this manner. Anxiety is contagious and can be communicated from staff to client and vice versa. Have sufﬁcient staff available to indicate a show of strength to client if it becomes necessary. This conveys to client an evidence of control over the situation and provides some physical security for staff. Administer tranquilizing medications as ordered by physi- cian, or obtain an order if necessary. Mechanical restraints or isolation room may be required if less restrictive interventions are unsuccessful. It is client’s right to expect the use of techniques that ensure the safety of client and others by the least restrictive means. Client recognizes, verbalizes, and accepts possible conse- quences of own maladaptive behaviors. Long-term Goal Client will demonstrate ability to interact with others with- out becoming defensive, rationalizing behaviors, or expressing grandiose ideas. Focusing on positive aspects of the personality may help to improve self- concept. Encourage client to recognize and verbalize feelings of inadequacy and need for acceptance from others and to recognize how these feelings provoke defensive behaviors, such as blaming others for own behaviors. Recognition of the problem is the ﬁrst step in the change process toward resolution. Provide immediate, matter-of-fact, nonthreatening feed- back for unacceptable behaviors. Providing this information in a nonthreatening manner may help to eliminate these undesirable behaviors. Help client identify situations that provoke defensiveness and practice through role-play more appropriate responses. Role-playing provides conﬁdence to deal with difﬁcult situ- ations when they actually occur.
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