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By L. Onatas. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona.

Through their education and experience buy trental 400 mg, expert witnesses can provide the court with an assessment or opinion within their area of competence buy discount trental 400 mg on line, which is not considered to be the domain of other professionals in court buy 400 mg trental fast delivery, such as the lawyers and the judge 400 mg trental with mastercard. The aim of this study is to investigate medical discourse in historical criminal trials in order to ascertain whether specific discursive practices were employed. The offence considered is infanticide and the narratives, cross-examinations and re-examinations involving doctors, physicians, pathologists, practitioners and ‘masters in surgery’ are investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively, providing examples of medical testimony which give a specialist and authoritative account of the physical examination of both victims and murderers. It has been observed that specific discursive practices account for the search for “balance between credibility and comprehensibility” (Cotterill 2003: 196) in a context where the discourse is to be considered both professional/lay and inter-professional (Linell 1998: 143). Medical experts find themselves simultaneously engaged in these two types of discourse: their testimonies are in fact for the benefit of a lay jury and lay people in general who lack understanding of and experience with both the legal and the medical genres and jargon. Additionally, the interactional dyad lawyer/medical expert can be considered to be an inter-professional type of discourse inasmuch as two competing modes of reasoning represent profession-specific approaches to the particular case in hand. Nowadays, expert witnesses occupy a unique position in court trials: unlike lay witnesses, they have more privileges and prerogatives, such as the right to give lengthier answers, to contradict their interlocutors, as well as to draw conclusions and express opinions on the strength of their experience and expertise. Outside the courtroom setting, they enjoy the same professional status and social standing of lawyers and judges, thanks to their competence and domain knowledge. However, since the witness box is a place outside their professional context, the experts are subject to the rule and role constraints which characterize the courtroom trial (2003: 168). As Linell (1998: 144) points out, this is because human beings wander between situations, just as discourse and discursive content travel across situations. The present chapter starts from an investigation of the position of expert witnesses in the historical courtroom, since it seems that in the past they did not enjoy the same social status and professional standing as their present-day colleagues. Additionally, as one might expect when dealing with historical data, especially spoken texts such as trial proceedings and witness testimonies, other questions such as The Old-Bailey Proceedings: Medical Discourse in Criminal Cases 233 source validity and accuracy may arise and these too merit close scrutiny. Materials and methodology The present study has drawn upon various studies which have dealt with courtroom discourse from wide-ranging, though often complementary, perspectives. A certain number of investigations looked at the socio-pragmatic aspects of courtroom discourse and are sometimes based on the description and exploration of actual courtroom proceedings, such as those in Atkinson and Drew (1979), Cotterill (2003), and Heffer (2005). Among these, some are conversationally-oriented studies looking at language in interaction in various institutional contexts and focus on the interactional dynamics of the courtroom, such as turn-taking and the sequential organization of discourse, for instance Heritage (2004), and Thornborrow (2002). Furthermore, the particular role of expert witnesses in the court- room and the fundamental matters of identity, credibility, power and social relationships therein, together with the ways these are negotiated through discourse, are discussed in depth by Chaemsaithong (2012), Maley (2000), and Stygall (2001). For the purpose of this chapter, useful insights were also gained from works about historical courtroom discourse such as those by Archer (2005) Chaemsaithong, (2011), Kryk-Kastovsky (2000; 2006), and those on historical data based on spoken interaction, e. The data for the present investigation are drawn from the Old Bailey Proceedings website which contains the proceedings of English criminal trial sessions from 1674 to 1913, after which publication came to a sudden halt. The earlier corpus built for this purpose entailed a first stage search for transcripts in the website containing 234 Michela Giordano the keywords doctor, surgeon, physician, practitioner, pathologist in the texts, since it was presumed that their presence in the text might demonstrate the actual involvement of such professionals and their practice in the unfolding of the trial. In the second stage, the search was narrowed down to trial accounts from January 1900 to December 1913, the last year in which the proceedings were published. Table 2 only contains the fourteen trials in which medical examinations were discussed and shows the total number of words in each transcript, the number of medical experts who testified in each trial and the number of words in the medical examinations. Despite the relatively small amount of data analysed, the results obtained do substantiate the conviction that the testimonies examined are representative of medical discourse in the th legal context in the early 20 century. It is worth noting that the transcripts in the website do not generally report the lawyers’ or judges’ questions, which were often omitted or abridged in the Proceedings. It is equally important to reiterate that the discourse in exami- nations was organized into a series of question and answer pairs, where both the turn order and the type of turn allocated to each party are fixed and pre-determined, as can be expected when dealing with a type of institutional discourse where specific forms of interaction are embedded in specific workplace contexts (Atkinson/Drew 1979; Thornborrow 2002; Heritage 2004). However, abridgments in the Proceedings were unavoidable since complete transcripts would have been uneconomic to publish because, as the website itself recounts, “publishers sought to make the trials readable and entertaining by presenting testimony unencumbered by legal and procedural details”. Therefore, the largest amount of missing information concerns the role played by lawyers and judges, such as statement by counsel, opening statement by the prosecution, cross-examinations and judges’ summing up, which were habitually excluded. Despite the abridgments, the Old Bailey Proceedings website represents an invaluable historical corpus that facilitates both The Old-Bailey Proceedings: Medical Discourse in Criminal Cases 237 diachronic socio-linguistic and socio-pragmatic research. Although this study will not take a diachronic perspective, but will conduct a synchronic analysis of expert witness narratives and discursive th strategies in trials in the early 20 century, trials and expert witness testimonies undoubtedly represent a good example of spoken language data from earlier periods and moreover provide an invaluable source of information on the participants’ age, sex, status, culture, and their relationship in a specific context and setting which would not otherwise be available. This seems to be one of the major obstacles that historical pragmatics has to face: knowledge of the spoken interaction of the past is only confined to what can be gleaned from written records (Culpeper/Kytö 2000). In considering the value of the Old Bailey Proceedings as a source of historical data, it is important to remember that even if they “do not provide a full transcript of everything that was said in court”, as the website itself states, the materials reported can be considered accurate and their reliability has often been confirmed by other manuscripts or published records which can be checked using multiple sources or a ‘triangulation’ procedure, as suggested by Culpeper and Kytö (2010). Additionally, it can be presumed that the trials under scrutiny here, occurring in a period between 1902 and 1913, were very likely to have undergone a comparison with other reports or alternative accounts before publication. As Culpeper and Kytö (2000: 188) explain, many trial proceedings were designed for general public consumption and “sometimes part of the marketing strategy was to claim, usually in the title page, that the proceeding was a ‘true’ or ‘faithful’ record taken in court”. The same authors later state that the important factor in this kind of historical research is that “the historical speech report purports to be a faithful report” (Culpeper/Kytö 2010: 81). The inquiry will focus on the managing of specific medical lexis and phraseology (such as, for 238 Michela Giordano example, the expressions a separate existence, puerperal fever and transitory mania) and their embedding in the legal context of which the particular setting and situation call for explanations and clarifications of meanings unknown to the lay jury, the lawyers and the judge himself as well as most of the people present in the courtroom. Medical experts in the historical courtroom The present chapter analyses the position and the discourse of medical experts in the historical courtroom: the adjective historical here carries multiple meanings. The first and more straightforward one is that which alludes to the old period being considered, in this case the decade 1902-1913, more than a century ago. The second meaning points to the distinction between the salient features of early courtrooms and the present-day ones and looks at what insights present-day courtroom linguistic studies can gain from the investigations of early or historical courtroom discourse. More precisely, the expression historical courtroom is utilised by authors such as Kryk-Kastovky (2000, 2006), Jucker (2008) and Chaemsaithong (2011), who see the courtroom of earlier periods as the site from which examples of original spoken language of the past can be derived. Following this, the historical linguist or pragmatist is confronted with the question of how the written data available nowadays actually reflects the language spoken in that given historical period, in order to understand the “conventions of language use in communities that once existed and are no longer accessible for direct observation” (Archer 2005: 6). However, the same author reports that, already in 1554, a judge declared, The Old-Bailey Proceedings: Medical Discourse in Criminal Cases 239 If matters arise in our law which concern other sciences or faculties we com- monly apply for the aid of that science or faculty, which it concerns. For thereby it appears that we don’t despise all other sciences but our own, but we approve of them and encourage them, as things worthy of recommendation. Historically, experts could in fact participate as specialist jurors whose particular knowledge was gained from their personal experience and th th training. In the late 13 and 14 centuries, such specialist juries were generally composed of goldsmiths, aldermen, cooks, fishmongers and masters of grammar who used their specialized knowledge to render their verdict (Chaemsaithong 2011). Towards the early modern period, there began a constant and continual decline in the use of a knowledgeable and informed jury that was entrusted with a “fact- finding, investigatory role” (Stygall 2001: 331). It was gradually replaced with a silent and uninformed jury whose responsibility was merely to consider evidence and testimony from the other witnesses in a trial. Thus, expert witnesses became necessary to give specialised testimony and evidence that would better inform the jury about the case before pronouncing their verdict (Chaemsaithong 2011). Since they had personally observed the facts and testified as to their conclusions, they could express their opinions; yet these were not differentiated from those of lay jurors who could do exactly the same, basing themselves on their direct knowledge of the facts of the case (Golan 2003). Furthermore, what must be borne in mind is that the growth of expert knowledge in fields such as medicine and its recognition as such is a relatively recent phenomenon, dating back to about the end th of the 19 century. This was of course the result of the growing reliance on science and the simultaneous rise of university and mass education systems that helped to legitimize the privileged status of 240 Michela Giordano experts, resulting from their professional expertise, capability and competence (Chaemsaithong 2011).

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Small midbrain lesions may result dominate in the leg (crural dominant hemiparesis) trental 400 mg line, in nuclear or fascicular third nerve palsies cheap trental 400mg. Nuclear reflecting the topographical orientation of the fibers palsy is recognizable by bilateral upgaze paresis and (leg – lateral discount trental 400 mg fast delivery, arm – medial) [12] purchase trental 400mg with mastercard. Other classic midbrain syndromes Involvement of the tegmentum implies more sensory, can be found in Table 8. Different eponym syndromes have been Common sites of atherothrombotic stenosis are the described in the literature, corresponding to circum- origin of vertebral arteries (which can lead to artery- scribed lesions and precise deficits (see Table 8. Embolic clots may and symptoms, especially if atherosclerosis of the ver- arise from vertebral or basilar atherosclerosis or from 127 tebral or basilar artery is the cause. Motor symptoms are infrequent and minor [19] and are mostly related to laterothalamic edema affecting the posterior internal capsule or to ischemia of the cerebral peduncles. In the latter situ- ation, a patient may present severe contralateral hemiplegia, hypesthesia and hemianopsia, mimicking Figure 8. Therefore it can mimic nosia), palinopsia, amusia, Balint syndrome (asimul- cortical and subcortical strokes in the anterior or tanognosia or incapacity to see a scene as a whole, posterior circulation and is also called “the great ocular apraxia or poor hand–eye coordination and imitator”. Its vascularization is subdivided into four optic ataxia or apraxia of gaze), metamorphosia, and territories correlated with the organization of the prosopagnosia [16]. For example, Percheron reported that the The thalamus paramedian arteries may arise from a unique P1 seg- The thalamus is a centrally situated structure with ment or from a vascular arcade connecting both P1 129 extensive reciprocal connections with the cortex, basal segments. It described by Foix and Hillemand, is flexed, pronated is absent in about a third of the population, in which and the thumb is buried beneath the other fingers case the paramedian arteries vascularize its territory. Behavioral disturbances are infrequent in infero- Infarction results in anterograde amnesia (mostly lateral stroke and include soft executive dysfunction reversible if unilateral), automatic-voluntary dissoci- and affective changes, resembling those found after ation with facial paresis for emotional movement, cerebellar stroke [21]. The inferior and middle rami include temporospatial disorientation, euphoria, mis- irrigate parts of the midbrain and the pons, while judgment, lack of spontaneity, apathy, emotional the superior ramus irrigates a variable extent of thal- unconcern, and a unique behavioral pattern, named amus but mostly the dorsomedial nucleus, the intra- palipsychism [21]. With a left lesion, bucco- decreased level of consciousness with or without fluc- facial or limb apraxia and thalamic aphasia can occur tuations, vertical gaze abnormalities and cognitive with reduced fluency, anomia, phonological and impairment, which become more obvious after the semantic paraphasia, perseveration, impaired com- resolution of the somnolence. Bilateral involvement is prehension, acalculia with preservation of reading evidently more severe. Visual-spatial disturbances are present mostly of personality changes with disinhibited behav- with a right lesion. The principal branches supply disturbances is recognized as a “thalamic dementia”. With unilateral infarction, a left–right asym- and lateral pulvinar, as well as the laterodorsal metry is obvious in language versus visual-spatial nucleus. The aphasia, named adynamic aphasia tralateral hemihypesthesia, involving one or several [20], is characterized by a reduced verbal fluency, with sensory modalities. It may be associated with chor- perseveration and paraphasic errors but with a rela- eoathetoid movements, hemiataxia, slight transient tively preserved syntax, comprehension and repetition. They to result from interruption of the dentatorubrothala- supply the pulvinar, part of the lateral and medial mic pathway. They also irrigate posterior portions “mid-line split”, defined by a subjective sensation of of medial temporal structures, parts of midbrain an abrupt stopping of the deficit on the midline of the and probably the subthalamic nucleus. Pseudoradicular sensory deficit is also sugges- syndrome is characterized by visual field defects, 130 tive of a thalamic involvement. Subsequent to, decreased optokinetic nystagmus contralaterally to or rarely in the acute phase of, an inferolateral infarct, the lesion, contralateral hemisensory loss with mild Chapter 8: Common stroke syndromes hemiparesis, and transcortical aphasia. Visual field Pure motor hemiparesis and ataxic hemiparesis deficits include homonymous quadrantanopsia, are most frequently due to an infarct in the internal superior or inferior, and a homonymous horizontal capsule, corona radiata or basis pontis. The deficit wedge-shaped sectoranopsia, which is highly suggest- is usually proportional, involving face, arm and leg ive of a lateral geniculate body lesion irrigated by the to the same extent. On the other hand, a homonymous visual related to a lesion in the ventroposterior nucleus of defect in the upper and lower quadrants sparing a the thalamus, and less frequently the corona radiata. Dysarthria–clumsy hand syndrome is due most involvement, develop delayed contralateral hyperkin- of the time to a lacunar infarct in the basis pontis, etic movements, including ataxia, rubral tremor, dys- less frequently to a lesion in the internal capsule or tonia, myoclonus and chorea, a syndrome named the cerebral peduncle. No specific behav- specific location may lead to different lacunar stroke ioral disturbance is described, but some spatial neg- syndromes. Similarly, it has to be repeated that lect was associated with right pulvinar lesions. Depending on the location there can be Many other lacunar syndromes have been additional symptoms (e. Together with leukoaraiosis, microbleeds, and infarct in the subthalamic nucleus, but lesions in the “hypertensive” (deep) intracerebral hemorrhages, basal ganglia may also cause it. Ischemic lacunar strokes have some characteristic This disease is tightly related to chronic hypertension, clinical features. They often progress during the first but diabetes, male gender, increasing age, smoking, 24–48 hours after onset or can fluctuate considerably. About 20% of all strokes function, the phenomenon is called “capsular warning are considered to be of lacunar origin, and it is esti- syndrome”, resulting usually from a lacune in the mated that only one of five lacunes is symptomatic. About half of these fluctuating patients Lacunes result most frequently from occlusion of a will end with a lacunar stroke within 24–48 hours. The single penetrating artery from lipohyalinosis within pathogenesis is not clear but seems to be rather electro- the artery. Other mechanisms include microatheromas, physiological, given its stereotyped fluctuations, and the occlusion of the penetrator orifice from a large plaque absence of response to antithrombotic medication and in the mother artery, microembolism, vasculitis, hyper- to elevation of perfusion pressure. Section 3: Diagnostics and syndromes Lacunes are small subcortical infarcts less than 1. If Five main classic lacunar syndromes are recognized: an arterial pathology is present, onset can be less abrupt than in embolic strokes and can fluctuate pure motor hemiparesis with changes of blood pressure and body position. They involve the junction of distal regions The clinical presentation is heterogeneous and of two arterial systems. Recently, a Chapter Summary combination of these mechanisms has been proposed [27]: hypoperfusion due to severe arterial stenosis or Anterior circulation syndromes occlusion would impair the reserve of brain areas The anterior circulation refers to the part of the becoming more susceptible to the effect of microemboli, brain perfused by the carotid arteries. Signs and symptoms may be bilateral in the signs of all anterior circulation arteries. A progressive case of systemic hypotension or unilateral in the case atherosclerotic occlusion is usually less severe, with a classic subacute two-phase presentation, or even asymp- of unilateral carotid severe stenosis or occlusion. Vahedi K, Hofmeijer J, Juettler E, Vicaut E, George B, syndrome (myosis, mild ptosis of the upper and Algra A, et al. Early decompressive surgery in lower eyelid, and hemifacial anhydrosis), bilateral or malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a crossed motor, cerebellar and sensitive signs, truncu- pooled analysis of three randomised controlled trials. A new view of anterior choroidal main classic lacunar syndromes are recognized: artery territory infarction. Vasomotor reactivity is exhausted in transient ischaemic attacks pure sensory stroke with limb shaking. Posterior cerebral artery territory infarcts: clinical features, infarct topography, causes and outcome. Ischemic lacunar strokes have some characteristic Multicenter results and a review of the literature. Watershed (or borderzone) infarcts involve the junc- tion of distal regions of two arterial systems.

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Program The faculty of the Human Genetics Program The Institute of Genetic Medicine offers an offers research training for medical students in interdivisional program based in the School the combined M order 400 mg trental free shipping. This program is predicated on the Syndromes of telomere shortening which belief that research progress is enhanced capture both the degenerative and cancer-prone by detailed knowledge of the experimental phenotypes of aging buy cheap trental 400 mg on-line. The proximity to renown clini- Recombination buy 400 mg trental free shipping, physical and somatic cell cal facilities of the Johns Hopkins Hospital trental 400 mg low cost, genetic mapping; developmental consequences including the Institute of Genetic Medicine, of aneuploidy; manipulation and modifcation of and Oncology Center provides faculty and yeast artifcial chromosomes. Because the program in human Molecular genetics of cellular transformation and genetics is a university-wide activity, support- metastasis; studies of a human transposon-like ing facilities are extensive. Students are Professor of Molecular Biology and Genetics encouraged, however, to apply for fellowships Molecular genetics of germ cell development. All of Cell Biology, Anatomy, Molecular Biology examples are geared towards the biological scienc- and Genetics, Biological Chemistry, Patholo- es. The courses offered by the faculty of the Nine weekly discussions of papers about the program are listed below. All courses are nature of epigenetic factors in mammalian cells and open to graduate students from any university their roles in conferring cell memory, imprinting in program as well as selected undergraduates. Topics the aegis of the Department of Molecular Biol- for discussion will include chromosome structure ogy and Genetics offers a program of study and function, gene mapping, mutation and karyo- leading to the Ph. Within this pro- typic aberrations, sex determination, inborn errors gram, the faculty offer didactic training and of metabolism, genetical heterogeneity, genotype- research experiences with a strong empha- environment interaction in health and disease, including cancer. Stem cell models for human blood/immune Readings on the seminal papers and major contri- development and disease. Semenza Molecular mechanisms of lymphocyte and Jabs differentiation and activation; immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene assembly. Associate Professor of Oncology Using a unique murine model to investigate the 710. During the second year of study, subse- quent to the satisfactory completion of a 250. The course The candidate is also required to present a largely uses student lead discussions of relevant written dissertation based on original research journal articles but problem sets and demonstra- undertaken during residency as a graduate stu- tions are also incorporated. As basic mechanisms of immune toler- and c) post-doctoral students wishing to pre- ance become elucidated, it is now possible to deter- pare for careers in teaching and research. The gen- cy diseases and potentially autoimmune diseases, eral content is similar to Graduate Immunology, but has its own set of associated tolerance mecha- is oriented more toward human diseases involving nisms. Lectures, small discussion manipulate immune tolerance are being developed groups, clinical correlation, and laboratory exercis- and clinically tested. The course will focus on a tion, cancer progression, and the host immune specifc topic related to immune recognition, devel- response. The topic student led journal club covering one or more land- will change annually. This course is offered as the major course for Through a combination of lectures, discussions graduate students in the third and fourth quarter to of published papers and student presentations provide a comprehensive survey of modern cellular we shall explore the current understanding of the and molecular immunology. It consists predomi- mechanisms that regulate the choice between cell nately of lectures given by faculty from the Hopkins life and cell death. We will use examples from B and T lymphocytes, and attempt to discern com- community, but also includes some guest lecturers mon principles as well as cell-specifc effects. This course is open to all of the course will focus on peripheral differentiation graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. A graduate level advanced course which covers in- A graduate seminar that will examine three unsolved depth the genes, proteins and cells that play role in problems in immunology: Discussion of each topic, the innate immune response. Topics include inver- to be led by individual students, will center on two tebrate immunity, pathogen recognition receptors, to three critical papers suggested by the instructors the microbiome and the role innate immunity plays and read in advance by the group. Requirements for Admission Current Accreditation: 2011-2018 The applicant must have a bachelor degree Applicants must hold a bachelor degree with demonstrating a high level of scholarship. A portfolio courses will be offered by the School of Medi- of non-scientifc art, including still life draw- cine. Illustration and communications curricu- lum will be provided by the Department of Art ing and painting (watercolor preferred), fgure as Applied to Medicine. Students may indi- studies, graphic design, and digital media is vidualize their study depending on previous submitted for review. Programs Comparative Pathobiology, Associate Professor before he or she is recommended for degree. Materials and tech- Department of Molecular and Comparative niques used in producing instructive three-dimen- Pathobiology. Students may elect additional sional medical sculpture and rehabilitative facial science courses with approval of the director. Skills laboratory and consult with their preceptor by the frst providing hands-on experience in: quarter of the second year. Camera and lighting techniques, include original investigation with expository reproducing art in color and black and white with illustrations or sculpture (3D modeling, ani- both analogue and digital media. An overview of minimum of two consecutive semesters as the essential hardware, software, and peripheral devices for the production of digital images. Courses are directly related to technical, bio- logical, or medical subject matter. Sketching from the assignments require problem solving and cadaver and application of illustration techniques, individual research topics. Complete under- coordinated with gross anatomy dissection sched- standing of the topic is required. Augmented all media communication utilized by clinicians, by autopsy, specimens, and text references. Technical aspects of digital art production using both vector and raster- trating for experience, when appropriate. Creating digital art- First Year work for print and projection media: two-dimension- The academic calendar for frst year students al color still images. Rendering of scientifc niques for creating 3D models and animations for subject matter with emphasis on form, texture, and distribution as electronic fles and videos. Introduction to niques for creation of dynamic animation optimized reproduction methodology, specifcations for copy, for electronic presentation media. Continu- Instructional design process, project planning and ous tone rendering of medical and biological sub- development. Assignments in a variety of media with indi- al designer, project manager, programmer, illustra- vidually researched topics. Survey of ophthalmological surgical pro- illustration techniques to biological, botanical, and cedures. Original investiga- years of distinguished leadership in medical tion under preceptor and department advisor. Design and management of functional illustra- support in the Department of Art as Applied tion production units. Practice in analyzing prob- lems of the visual artist and formulating practical to Medicine was established in 1973 with a solutions. Trott whose death in 1973 tion to operating room protocol, observation and recording of surgical procedures.

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Kunkel have endowed a lectureship in disease research at Johns Hopkins Univer- immunology commemorating this outstand- sity purchase trental 400mg without a prescription. Kunkel buy discount trental 400mg line, a graduate of the Johns Hopkins informally with colleagues and to present a University School of Medicine buy 400 mg trental, was Profes- lecture generic trental 400 mg. The selection of the lecturer is made sor and Senior Physician at the Rockefeller by a committee chaired by the Director of the University. Eastman, one demonstration that myeloma proteins closely of the most infuential and important American resemble normal immunoglobulins laid the obstetricians, served for more than 20 years foundation upon which the present knowl- as Obstetrician-in-Chief at The Johns Hop- edge of immunoglobulin structure and led to kins Hospital and Director of the Department the recognition of IgM and IgA as separate of Obstetrics in The Johns Hopkins University antibody classes. Eastman was respon- work in systemic lupus erythematosus and sible in large part for the scientifc develop- rheumatoid arthritis contributed in a semi- ment of obstetrics and his numerous publi- nal manner to knowledge of the underlying cations probably represent the frst efforts to pathogenesis of these autoimmune diseases. Myron Belfer in honor of his par- obstetrics and gynecology through the Nich- ents, Ira and Jean Belfer. He had been responsible their youngest son, Peter, who was a patient for the teaching of all the residents that had at Hopkins from the age of 6 months until his passed through the Department of Derma- death from heart disease in 1991 at the age tology Residency Program at that time. Since that time, the Belfer family and Zeligman was highly respected in the private their friends have displayed unfagging inter- practice of Dermatology and one who gave est and continued generosity in the support freely of his time to promote the clinical train- of Belfer Laboratories. The Lectureship is sup- Lecture in Lung Health and Disease: This ported by revenues generated by donations lecture was established within the Division of from former residents and friends. Mountcastle Lectureship: Johns Hopkins School of Medicine following Upon the retirement of Vernon Mountcastle the death of Dr. The lectureship her commitment to excellence, the humanis- honors the major contributions of Dr. Mount- tic missions of the clinicians, and the contri- castle to neuroscience and to Johns Hopkins bution of women to medicine. Lehninger Goldwin Smith Professor of Chemistry Emeritus established a lectureship in his memory in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology feld of biochemistry. He was then appointed Univer- Lecture I sity Professor of Medical Science, a position L. He Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine served in this position until his death in 1986. Capitalizing on Tumor Genotyping: Toward the This Lectureship was inaugurated in 1990. Irrespec- graduate students registered in the School of tive of the actual scheduling of the medical Medicine is $41,200. These tuitions cover all and graduate portions of their education stu- normal charges. Living expens- remaining years will be assessed annually es, health insurance, a $200 imaging fee for at the M. Alterna- matriculation fee are in addition to the tuition tive schedules for payments at the M. Tuition is prorated to Special schedules for payment of fees can be period of enrollment. There is a $25 annual fee for Student in Students will not be admitted to the regu- Residence status. Offce of the Registrar of the School of Medi- Candidates cine and arranged for payment of their fees for the frst half of the academic year. Regis- Tuition for each 12 month period (September- tration is not required for the second half but August) of enrollment will be at the rate estab- arrangements must be made for the payment lished by the University for Ph. The late charge will clinical electives will be assessed a $1,000 be 1-1/2% per month of the unpaid balance, and will be added to each unpaid account on tuition fee and $300 registration fee for each the frst of each month. The reg- parking fees, the 1-1/2% late charge will be istration fee for research electives is $300 per assessed thirty days after billing and on the quarter or fraction thereof. When late ing medical students is usually limited to one payments result from delayed receipt of loans quarter per academic year. Some surgical for which timely application has been made, departments/divisions provide partial regis- the late charge may be waived by the Asso- tration fee support. All fees and Part-Time Degree Candidates charges must be paid in full in order for a stu- These students will be assessed tuition at the dent to be approved for graduation. Candidates Candidates) Tuition rates are determined annually by Tuition will be assessed at the part-time the Board of Trustees. To enroll, complete Tuition for postdoctoral students who are the Johns Hopkins Student Health Program not members of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Benefts Election Form. The annual cost to house staff is $800 per annum, pro-rated in the student is as follows: single-$3,072, hus- relation to period of enrollment. Tuition may band/wife-$7,590, parent/child-$7,590, fam- be remitted as specifed by the Executive ily-$10,140. The annual completion of 60 percent of a semester will cost to the student is $192. The date of withdrawal will be calculated Life Insurance from the date the student’s written statement In January of the second year the School of withdrawal is submitted to the Offce of the of Medicine purchases a $100,000 term life Associate Dean for Student Affairs. Excep- insurance policy for each second year medi- tions to this policy must be approved by the cal student. Students withdrawing after Disability Insurance the start of a course will receive a pro-rated The School of Medicine provides a disability refund up to 60 percent calculated from day plan for all students enrolled as M. This coverage will provide benefts completion of 60 percent of a course will should a student develop a disability while receive no refund of tuition. Many students children must have medical insureance that continue their investigative studies for three meets minimum standards of coverage as consecutive years during summer vacations determined by the School of Medicine. Cov- and elective time of the regular medical cur- erage is also available to same-sex domestic riculum. If you have alternative coverage often published in leading scientifc journals and want to opt out of the student health insur- and presented at national meetings of sci- ance offered by the School of Medicine for entifc societies. Research fellowships coverage, or if your alternative plan does not are frequently available to them in support of meet the minimum standards as outlined on such studies. The stipends of these scholar- the waiver form, you must enroll in the Stu- ships vary from $500 to $2,000. The awards are to be used in support of gram provides an opportunity for candidates a research effort which involves the summer for the M. Barry Wood Student Research Fund the program may elect to either: 1) interrupt The W. Barry Wood Student Research Fund their regular medical curriculum to take an was established in 1971 by the family and additional year devoted to research, thereby friends of Dr. Wood had delaying their date of graduation by one year, a long association with the School of Medi- or 2) aggregate their elective quarters into cine as student, house offcer, Vice President one consecutive 12 month period in order of the University in charge of medical affairs, to graduate with their class. Four stipends and Director of the Department of Microbi- equivalent to that of a graduate student plus ology.

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