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Anaphylaxis though rare discount 100 mg persantine with visa, can occur and epinephrine (adrenaline) must always be immediately available whenever immunizaton is given cheap 100 mg persantine free shipping. If a serious adverse event (including anaphylaxis persantine 100mg with visa, collapse discount persantine 100mg line, shock, encephalits, encephalopathy, or non-febrile convulsion) occurs following a dose of any vaccine, a subsequent dose should not be given. In the case of a severe reacton to Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus vaccine, the pertussis component should be omited and the vaccinaton completed with Diphtheria and Tetanus vaccine. Immunizaton should be postponed in acute illness which may limit the response to immunizaton, but minor infectons without fever or systemic upset are not contraindicatons. If alcohol or other disinfectng agent is used to wipe the injec- ton site it must be allowed to evaporate, otherwise inactva- ton of a live vaccine may occur. The intramuscular route must not be used in patents with bleeding disorders such as haemophilia or thrombocyto- penia. Some viral vaccines contain small quanttes of antbacterials such as polymyxin B or neomycin; such vaccines may need to be withheld from individuals who are extremely sensitve to the antbacterial. Some vaccines are prepared using hens’ eggs and a history of anaphylaxis to egg ingeston is a contrain- dicaton to the use of such vaccines; cauton is required if such vaccines are used in persons with less severe hypersensitvity to egg. When two live virus vaccines are required (and are not avail- able as a combined preparaton) they should be given either simultaneously at diferent sites using separate syringes or with an interval of at least 3 weeks. Live virus vaccines should normally be given either at least 2-3 weeks before or at least 3 months afer the administraton of immunoglobulin. Live vaccines should not be given to anyone with malignant disease such as leukaemia or lymphomas or other tumours of the retculo-endothelial system. Live vaccines should not be given to individuals with an impaired immune response caused by disease, radiotherapy or drug treatment (for example, high doses of cortcosteroids). Sterile abscess may develop at the injecton site; fever, headache, malaise startng a few hour afer injecton and lastng for 1-2 days may occur. Routne vaccinaton against Haemophilus infuenzae type b infecton is also recommended in some countries. In geographical regions where the burden of disease is unclear, eforts should be made to evaluate the magnitude of the problem. This has been estmated, in several setngs, to reduce the incidence of meningeal and miliary tuberculosis in early childhood by 50 to 90%. However, estmates of its efectveness in older chil- dren have difered greatly from region to region and because efcacy against pulmonary tuberculosis is doubtul, the main- stay of the tuberculosis control programme is case-fnding and treatment. Diphtheria vaccine is a formaldehyde-inactvated preparaton of diphtheria toxin, adsorbed onto a mineral carrier to increase its antgenicity and reduce adverse reactons. Immunized individuals can be infected by toxin-producing strains of diphtheria but systemic manifestatons of the disease do not occur. Tetanus-diphtheria vaccine for adults, adolescents and children over 10 years of age (Td), which has a reduced amount of diphtheria toxoid to reduce the risk of hypersensitvity reactons, is used for primary immunizaton in persons over the age of 10 years; it is also used for reinforcing immunizaton in persons over the age of 10 years in those countries that recommend it. Pertussis Pertussis (whooping cough) is a bacterial respiratory infec- ton caused by Bordetella pertussis. Whole cell vaccine composed of whole pertussis bacteria killed by chemicals or heat is efectve in preventng serious illness. It causes frequent local reactons and fever and rarely, it may be associated with neurological reactons. Neurological complicatons afer pertussis infecton are considerably more common than afer the vaccine. It is combined with diphthe- ria-tetanus vaccine for primary immunizaton unless immuni- zaton against pertussis is contraindicated. Single component pertussis vaccines are available in some countries for use when the pertussis component has been omited from all or part of the primary immunizaton Schedule An acellular form of the vaccine is also available. In some countries it is recommended that children with a personal or family history of febrile convulsions or a family history of idiopathic epilepsy should be immunized. Tetanus Tetanus is caused by the acton of a neurotoxin of Clostridium tetani in necrosed tssues such as occur in dirty wounds. Tetanus vaccine is available as a single component vaccine for primary immunizaton in adults who have not received childhood immunizaton against tetanus and for reinforcing immunizaton. The vaccine is also used in the preventon of neonatal tetanus and in the management of clean wounds and tetanus-prone wounds. Neonatal tetanus due to infecton of the baby’s umbilical stump during unclean delivery is the cause of many deaths of newborn infants. Control of neonatal tetanus may be achieved by ensuring adequate hygiene during delivery and by ensuring protectve immunity of mothers in late pregnancy. Tetanus vaccine is highly efectve and the efcacy of two doses during pregnancy in preventng neonatal tetanus ranges from 80-100%. Women of child-bearing age may be immunized by a course of 5 doses (3 primary and 2 reinforcing) of tetanus vaccine. Wounds are considered to be tetanus-prone if they are sustained either more than 6 h before surgical treatment of the wound or at any interval afer injury and show one or more of the following: a puncture-type wound, a signifcant degree of devitalized tssue, clinical evidence of sepsis, contamina- ton with soil/manure likely to contain tetanus organisms. Antbacterial prophylaxis (with benzylpeni- cillin or Amoxycillin with clavulanic acid, or metro- nidazole) may also be required for tetanus-prone wounds. It is transmited in blood and blood products, by sexual contact and by contact with infectous body fuids. Persons at increased risk of infec- ton because of their life-style, occupaton or other factors include parenteral drug abusers, individuals who change sexual partners frequently, health care workers who are at risk of injury from blood-stained sharp instruments and haemophiliacs. Also at risk are babies born to mothers who are HbsAg-positve (hepatts B virus surface antgen positve) and individuals who might acquire the infecton as the result of medical or dental procedures in countries of high preva- lence. The main public health consequences are chronic liver disease and liver cancer rather than acute infecton. Measles Vaccines: Measles is an acute viral infecton transmited by close respi- ratory contact. In some countries routne immunizaton of children against measles is given as one dose of a single compo- nent vaccine; in other areas, a two-dose schedule has been found to be more applicable. Poliomyelits Vaccines: Poliomyelits is an acute viral infecton spread by the faecal-oral route which can cause paralysis of varying degree. Oral poliomyelits vaccine may need to be repeated in patents with diarrhoea or vomitng. The need for strict personal hygiene must be stressed as the vaccine virus is excreted in the faeces. The contacts of a recently vaccinated baby should be advised partcularly of the need to wash their hands afer changing the baby’s nappies. It should be used for individuals who are immunosuppressed or for their household contacts. Vaccines for Specifc Groups of Individuals: There are several other vaccines available which are used in diferent countries but are not yet recommended for routne use throughout the world.
However persantine 100mg generic, underlying principle being identical buy persantine 100 mg on line, a rotating mirror affords the scanning of individual frequencies buy persantine 100mg amex. The various steps that may be followed sequentially to operate a double-monochromator infrared spectrophotometer are described below : (i) The light from the infrared source C is made to split into two beams one of which passes through the sample (i buy cheap persantine 100mg online. This sort of dou- ble-beam arrangement facilitates in measuring difference in intensities between the two beams at each wavelength, (ii) In this instance two monochromators have been employed in series with an intermediate slit (S3) as shown in Figure 22. Experimental Profile of Infrared Spectroscopy : Quantitative Analysis In usual practice, there are two methods that are frequently employed for the determination of the transmittance ratio in quantitative analysis namely : (a) Emperical ratio method, and (b) Base-line method. The above two methods shall be discussed briefly with the help of certain typical examples as detailed below : 22. Emperical Ratio Method This particular method is often employed in a situation where the absorption bands of the analyte are found to be very close to those of the main constituent or the internal standard. The quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical substances may be achieved by emperical-ratio method either by plotting percentage transmittance against wavelength or by plotting the log T1o/T1 against concen- tration as illustrated in Figure 22. Base-Line Method It essentially involves the selection of an absorption band of an analyte which does not remain very close to the bands of other constituents present in the matrix. The value of the incident radiant energy Po may be achieved by drawing a straight line tangent to the spectral absorption curve at the position of the analyte’s absorption band. Consequently the transmittance P is usually measured at the point of maximum absorption. Finally, the value of log Po/P is plotted against the concentration as shown in Figure 22. It is, however, pertinent to mention here that the application of both emperical ratio method and base- line method help in eliminating to a great extent the errors caused due to changes in source intensity and adjustment of the optical system. Determination of the Absorption Spectrum of a Solid Compound (or a Pharmaceu- tical Substance) The determination of the absorption spectrum of a solid pharmaceutical substance is invariably ac- complished by any one of the two following techniques namely : (a) Mull Technique, and (b) Potassium Bromide Disc Technique. Mull Technique Procedure : Take about 15-20 mg of sample in a previously cleaned small agate mortar and powder it thoroughly (about 200 mesh). Add to it 2 drops of purified paraffin (commonly known as Nujol) or any other suitable mulling liquid and continue the trituration until a very smooth paste of uniform consistency is achieved. Now, transfer the slurry to a sodium chloride window, placing it carefully into the cavity made by the spacer. With the help of a clean piece of tissue-paper wipe out the excess paste that has squeezed out from the cell windows. Salient Features : The salient features of Mull Technique are as follows : (i) Particle size of the sample has got to be reduced below 200 mesh or 3 µm so as to avoid scattering of radiation thereby causing poor absorption spectrum. Now, carefully place the sample mixture into the pressing chamber of the mould in such a manner that it is held between the polished surfaces of the bottom and top pressing dies. Subsequently, attach the chamber to the vacuum line and switch-on the vacuum pump ; initially applying a slight negative pressure so as to compact the powder and then gradually increasing it to ≤ 15 mm Hg for 30 seconds. Finally, enhance the pressing force to 100,000 lb/in2 or 10-12 tons/in2 for a period of 1-2 minutes. Now, remove the window from the mould and keep it in position onto the sample holder. Consequently, the solid is powdered, pressed into a disc in the normal procedure and ultimately the absorption spectrum of the trapped substance is studied, (iii) It enjoys the advantage of producing spectra absolutely free from any solvent peaks (unlike Mull Technique) and hence it is employed extensively in routine analysis. In order to overcome this tedious process of measuring disc thickness carefully the use of an internal standard has been introduced. In usual prac- tice, it must be preground, dried and subsequently reground, and used at a concentration of 0. Now, the ratio of the thiocyanate absorption at 2125 cm–1 to a selected band absorption of the analyte is plotted against the percent concentration of the sample. Finally, its absorbance ratio is determined and the concentration (of unknown sample) is read off directly from the standard calibration curve. Calibration of Infrared Spectrophotometers The wavelength (or wave number) scale calibration of infrared spectrophotometers is usually carried out with the aid of a strip of polystyrene film fixed on a frame. It consists of several sharp absorption bands, the wavelengths of which are known accurately and precisely. Grind the mixture thoroughly, spread it uniformly in a suitable die and compress under vacuum at a pressure of about 10 t in–2. Precautions : The following precautions may be observed carefully : (i) Several factors e. Determination of Aspirin, Phenacetin and Caffeine in Tablets Theory : The quantitation is solely based on the intensities of the carbonyl bands at 1764, 1511 and 1665 cm–1 for aspirin, phenacetin and caffeine respectively. Determination of Meprobamate in Tablets Maynard (1960) carried out the analysis of meprobamate by dissolving it in chloroform (spectroscopic O grade) and subsequently determining the intensity of the amide carbonyl band at 1582 cm–1. Later ( C) Shearken (1968) adopted a modified method of assay by using chloroform as an extracting medium, but instead of the carbonyl band measured the N—H stretching band at 3436 cm–1. This aspect is duly expatiated with the aid of the following typical examples, namely : 22. Theory : It is an established fact that cis- and trans-substituted double bonds have slightly different absorption bands in the region of 13 µm. Besides, the pharmacological actions of many compounds are invariably dependent on the shape of molecules and hence, usually play a very significant role. Therefore, if both cis- and trans-isomers are pro- duced in the course of a particular synthesis it may be absolutely necessary to incorporate in the product profile a specific test for the relative proportions of one to the other. This type of ‘control measure’ strictly conforms the uniformity of composition in the bulk-drug industry and ensures a check on the batch-to-batch variation. In the alkaline medium the base is liberated which is extracted successively with 3 portions of solvent ether (10 ml each). Finally, repeat the assay with a 1 : 1 mixture (75 mg) of cis and trans-clomiphene citrates and also with clomiphene citrate (75 mg) as such. It may be further expatiated due to the fact that a functional group which often results in many specific and characteristic absorption bands can be identified more precisely and definitely than a function which produces only one characteristic absorption band. Thus, pharmaceutical substances that exhibit the same infrared spectra may be inferred as identical. These instruments have the advantage of storing in their computer-memory-banks of sizable number of digitalized information obtained from the infrared spectra of standard compounds. Now, with the flick of a keyboard button the spectrum of an unknown compound, previously fed to the same digital storage bank, may be conveniently compared with the stand- ards and finally to get at the identical infrared absorptions to the unknown. However, following different aspects must be taken into consideration while interpreting the spectrum : (a) In usual practice, the absence of a strong group absorption definitely indicates the absence of that group in the molecule, based on the assumption that no other factors are influencing which might shift the absorption band to the other regionse. In other words, intramolecular or intermolecular changes caused due to the hydrogen bonding help in shifting the expected absorption band either to the higher region or to the lower region. For instance : the clear absence of a sharp and strong absorption band in the region 1850-1640 cm–1 (or 5.
The purpose of the given work is study of assortment and working principles of means for controlling temperature regimes at all stages of commodity movement of drugs including transportation (shipping) cheap persantine 100mg on line. In the work a lot of information sources were used including normative documents cheap persantine 100 mg without a prescription, journal articles discount persantine 100mg with visa, Internet sources order persantine 100 mg visa, concerning assortment of modern means for control of temperature regime and their comparative characteristics. Heat indicators by their action principle are subdivided on capillary, chemical and electronic ones. Capillary heat indicators allow eliciting the fact of influence of temperature below liquid freezing point. The chemical heat indicator represents painting substance rendered onto a basis, that irreversible changes its colour under the influence of temperature above a determined threshold during established time. The working principle of electronic heat indicator is based on measurement of temperature of environment in which there is a heat indicator, and finding time in the specified environment. To prevent possible falsification of indications each heat indicator should have its own personified number. The impossibility of determination of the exact moment and duration of negative 322 temperature influence on controllable product is their basic lack. Thermal recording devices or electronic recorders are deprived the above- stated lacks and for today are considered as more effective temperature monitors. The most optimal by the sum of parameters are devices ThermoChron made by company Dallas Semiconductor. ThermoChron provides accumulating in its own memory information about 2048 events within temperature ranges –40 °C – +85 °С with relative error not more ±1 °С. Value of the minimum gradation of temperature recorded by the device thus constitutes 0. Obtaining of the results which have been saved up by devices ThermoChron, and also task of new values of adjusting parameters for continuation of their work are performed by means of the usual personal computer or specialized portable microprocessor devices. Devices ThermoChron are placed in the control points of temperature control, for example, in refrigerators with thermolabile medicines or in thermocontainers, used for delivery of drugs critically sensitive to temperature conditions. In spite of the fact that wholesale price of heat indicators constitutes 1 dollars, and devices ThermoChron – 20 dollars, advantages of thermo registers are obvious: recurrence of application (heat indicators - basically, are of single use), thermal time lag of heat indicators is 5-10 more, than of ThermoChron devices, depending on their modification sensitivity of operation of thermo registers – 0. The choice for means of registration of a temperature regimens is crucial for provision and preserving of quality of medical products not only during transportation, but also and at their storage in warehouses, in drugstores and pharmaceutical enterprises. The optimal for today is application of thermo registers, proceeding from a ratio price/efficiency/availability/easy in use. The radio-frequency labels which are built-in into drug package are the most perspective technology of the near future. Now this approach becomes more and more cheaper and it seems to be the only and the best, easiest way to ensure quality of drugs and other related commodities. It is known that the first aid to the injured during the first half an hour after being wounded, even in case of postponing first medical aid within the day, it reduces the likelihood of death in 3 times. So every soldier of the Armed Forces of Ukraine must be provided an individual aid kit. However, today in Ukraine there is another problem: the absence of regulations act of its content. The aim of this study was to comparative analysis of national and foreign military aid kit. To conduct a comparative analysis foreign and native literature and aid kit of national and foreign production were used. Results and discussion First aid kit - set of medical supplies, dressing materials, tools and equipments for first aid. The content of first aid kit depends on the preconditions of care, the nature of diseases , injuries and amount of people who may need help. Industrial and workplace first aid kit: a) Industrial first aid kit (standard); b) Workplace first aid kit (mobile); c) Workplace first aid kit type K (3-5 people); d) First aid kit office type C (5-10). Universal kits Due to the unstable situation in the world, giving first aid to the wounded soldiers is actual problem. Availability of comfortable and functional first-aid kit is important prerequisite. Order of the State Service of Ukraine on drugs on August 19, 2014 № 1087 registered 4 kinds of military medical kits:- First aid kit medical military individual; - First aid kit medical for military special purposes units; - First aid kit medical military universal; - First aid kit medical military general purpose. Conducted as part of the development of new military medical research kits, as well as combat experience showed that the main reasons for death of the wounded soldiers before the arrival of skilled care is excessive blood loss and occlusion of the airway. In accordance with the tasks that must be solved in giving first aid in combat, modern military first aid kit should include (in accordance with Rule C-A-B-C): C. Means airway 4) Nasopharyngeal (nasopharyngeal) duct (The Pro-Breathe, Kendall Argyle, etc. Means against respiratory disorders: 5) Occlusal Asherman chest patch -Asherman Chest Seal, Halo (or other). However, experts of Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine are planning to develop these standards. The problem of anorexia in the modern world worries not only doctors but also society. Unfortunately, this figure is increasing because of the death rates 20 % because of the disease and absence of effective treatment. The aim of this work is to study the gender dimensions of the phenomenon of anorexia. Research methods are based on the analysis of sociological studies on anorexia published in the British Journal of Psychiatry. The features of male and female anorexia were studied with the help of such methods as synthesis, analysis and comparison. The reason is the failure to recognize the presence of the disease and as a result, the reluctance to seek a qualified medical help. In anorexia observed an abnormal desire to lose weight, an intense fear accompanied by obesity. There are some factors of anorexia: social (environmental impact, imitation of ―ideal‖ image); biological (genetic and biological predisposition to anorexia); psychological (influence of family and domestic conflicts). Between male and female anorexia there are some differences: male anorexia is never an independent disease, but a symptom of another disease progression (female anorexia has an extremely independent nature); male anorexia is hardly visible (more obvious in women cases); treatment of male anorexia is more difficult than the female one. The report published in 2014 in the British Journal of Psychiatry dealt with the fact that the causes of anorexia can be different: seasonal changes of temperature, sunlight, catarrhal infections or mother‘s diet during pregnancy, subconscious psychological influence of men who like only slender girls. It is proved that loss of appetite leading to weight loss may indicate serious problems in the internal organs and systems, metabolic diseases, endocrine, genitourinary and gastrointestinal systems. Tumor processes, chronic pain of any origin and nature, incorrect and uncontrolled medication for weight loss lead to physiological exhaustion. To develop a method of treatment of this disease it is necessary to identify and neutralize the causes of each patient individually, taking into account the problem of gender. At the present stage of social development it should be carried out a preventive work with young people who are under the influence of communication provocations of ―model look‖ that can later lead to anorexia. A preventive medicine should replicate the effects of anorexia for male and female health.
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