By M. Konrad. Lincoln University of Pennsylvania.
Comparison of clinical and microbiological response to treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease with metronidazole and vancomycin order sildalist 120 mg overnight delivery. Adjunctive intracolonic vancomycin for severe Clostridium difficile colitis: case series and review of the literature trusted sildalist 120 mg. Treatment of Clostridium difficile associated disease: old therapies and new strategies buy sildalist 120mg cheap. Bhangu A purchase sildalist 120 mg overnight delivery, Nepogodiev D, Gupta A, Torrance A, Singh P (2012); West Midlands Research Collaborative. Systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes following emergency surgery for Clostridium difficile colitis. Clinical manifestations, treatment and control of infections caused by Clostridium difficile. In vivo selection of rifamycin-resistant Clostridium difficile during rifaximin therapy. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection: meta-analysis of pivotal randomized controlled trials. Probiotic therapy for the prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review. Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile associated disease. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease defined by prescription for oral vancomycin therapy. Comparative effectiveness of Clostridium difficile treatments: a systematic review. Comparison of risk factors and outcomes th of cases of Clostridium difficile infection due to ribotype 027 vs. Relapse versus reinfection: recurrent Clostridium difficile infection following treatment with fidaxomicin or vancomycin. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to assess the ability of rifaximin to prevent recurrent diarrhoea in patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Systematic review of intestinal microbiota transplantation (fecal bacteriotherapy) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Iatrogenic gastric acid suppression and the risk of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection. Prospective derivation and validation of a clinical prediction rule for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. A portrait of the geographic dissemination of the Clostridium difficile North American pulsed-field type 1 strain and the epidemiology of C. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and proton pump inhibitor therapy: a meta-analysis. Is primary prevention of Clostridium difficile infection possible with specific probiotics? Interruption of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea episodes by serial therapy with vancomycin and rifaximin. Rifaximin redux: treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections with rifaximin immediately post-vancomycin treatment. Prebiotic-non- digestible oligosaccharides preference of probiotic bifidobacteria and antimicrobial activity against Clostridium difficile. Decreased effectiveness of metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection? Impact of emergency colectomy on survival of patients with fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis during an epidemic caused by a hypervirulent strain. Treatment with intravenously administered gamma globulin of chronic relapsing colitis induced by Clostridium difficile toxin. A predominantly clonal multi- institutionaloutbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity andmortality. Tolevamer, a novel nonantibiotic polymer, compared with vancomycin in the treatment of mild to moderately severe Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Recurrent Clostridium difficile disease: epidemiology and clinical characteristics. Breaking the cycle: treatment strategies for 163 cases of recurrent Clostridium difficile disease. Intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe, refractory, and recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhea. Health care-associated Clostridium difficile infection in Canada: patient age and infecting strain type are highly predictive of severe outcome and mortality. Relatively poor outcome after treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis with metronidazole. Diverting loop ileostomy and colonic lavage: an alternative to total abdominal colectomy for the treatment of severe, complicated Clostridium difficile associated disease. Unfavorable effect of atropinediphenoxylate (Lomotil) therapy in lincomycin-caused diarrhea. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a region of Quebec from 1991 to 2003: a changing pattern of disease severity. Management and outcomes of a first recurrence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in Quebec, Canada. Investigation of outcome in cases of Clostridium difficile infection due to isolates with reduced susceptibility to metronidazole. Fidaxomicin for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: epidemiological method for estimation of warranted price. Treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile diarrhoea by administration of a non-toxigenic strain. Approach to patients with multiple relapses of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. Prospective randomised trial of metronidazole versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea and colitis. Gamma globulin administration in relapsing Clostridium difficile-induced pseudomembranous colitis with a defective antibody response to toxin A. Comparison of vancomycin, teicoplanin, metronidazole, and fusidic acid for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. Changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection following the introduction of a national ribotyping-based surveillance scheme in England. Descriptive study of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhoea.
Medicaid—A joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources generic sildalist 120 mg without prescription. Medicaid programs vary from state to state discount sildalist 120 mg free shipping, but most health care costs are covered if you qualify for both Medicare and Medicaid 120mg sildalist visa. Medicare Advantage Plan (Part C)—A type of Medicare health plan ofered by a private company that contracts with Medicare to provide you with all your Medicare Part A and Part B benefts cheap sildalist 120mg mastercard. Medicare Advantage Plans include Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, Private Fee-for-Service Plans, Special Needs Plans, and Medicare Medical Savings Account Plans. If you’re enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Plan, most Medicare services are covered through the plan and aren’t paid for under Original Medicare. In a Medicare Cost Plan, if you get services outside of the plan’s network without a referral, your Medicare-covered services will be paid for under Original Medicare (your Cost Plan pays for emergency services or urgently-needed services). Medicare health plans include all Medicare Advantage Plans, Medicare Cost Plans, and Demonstration/Pilot Programs. You can use the money in this account to pay for your health care costs, but only Medicare-covered expenses count toward your deductible. Te amount deposited is usually less than your deductible amount so you generally will have to pay out-of-pocket before your coverage begins. Medicare Part A (Hospital Insurance)—Part A covers inpatient hospital stays, care in a skilled nursing facility, hospice care, and some home health care. Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance)—Part B covers certain doctors’ services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services. Medicare prescription drug coverage (Part D)—Optional benefts for prescription drugs available to all people with Medicare for an additional charge. Tis coverage is ofered by insurance companies and other private companies approved by Medicare. Medicare Prescription Drug Plan (Part D)—Part D adds prescription drug coverage to Original Medicare, some Medicare Cost Plans, some Medicare Private-Fee-for-Service Plans, and Medicare Medical Savings Account Plans. Tese plans are ofered by insurance companies and other private companies approved by Medicare. Medicare Advantage Plans may also ofer prescription drug coverage that follows the same rules as Medicare Prescription Drug Plans. Te plan determines how much it will pay doctors and hospitals, and how much you must pay when you get care. A Private Fee-For-Service Plan is very diferent than Original Medicare, and you must follow the plan rules carefully when you go for health care services. When you’re in a Private Fee-For-Service Plan, you may pay more or less for Medicare-covered benefts than in Original Medicare. Some Medigap policies sold before January 1, 2006, have prescription drug coverage. Original Medicare—Original Medicare is a fee-for-service health plan that has two parts: Part A (Hospital Insurance) and Part B (Medical Insurance). Afer you pay a deductible, Medicare pays its share of the Medicare-approved amount, and you pay your share (coinsurance and deductibles). Penalty—An amount added to your monthly premium for Medicare Part B or a Medicare drug plan (Part D), if you don’t join when you’re frst eligible. Premium—Te periodic payment to Medicare, an insurance company, or a health care plan for health or prescription drug coverage. State Medical Assistance (Medicaid) ofce—A state or local agency that can give information about, and assist with applications for, Medicaid programs that help pay medical bills for people with limited income and resources. We’ve taken appropriate steps to make sure that people with disabilities, including people who are deaf, hard of hearing or blind, or who have low vision or other sensory limitations, have an equal opportunity to participate in our services, activities, programs, and other benefts. If you think you’ve been discriminated against or treated unfairly for any of these reasons, you can fle a complaint with the Department of Health and Human Services, Ofce for Civil Rights by: Calling 1-800-368-1019. Impact of anticholinergics on the aging brain: a review Aripiprazole (Abilify™) Nefopam (Nefogesic™) and practical application. The cognitive Clidinium (Librax™) Score of 3: impact of anticholinergics: a clinical review. Paliperidone (Invega™) Solifenacin (Vesicare™) Venlafaxine (Effexor™) Trospium (Sanctura™) 4. Developed by the Aging Brain Program Tamoxifen (Nolvadex™) of the Indiana University Center for Nizatidine (Axid™) Aging Research Duloxetine (Cymbalta™) Criteria for Categorization: Score of 1: Evidence from in vitro data that chemical entity has antagonist activity at muscarinic receptor. Score of 3: Evidence from literature, expert opinion, To request permission for use, contact us at or prescribers information that medication may cause acb@agingbraincare. Different types of drugs may be used in any given patient for a variety of reasons. The main classes of drugs include diuretics, antihypertensives, positive inotropics/inodilators, antithrombotics and antiarrhythmics. Supplements are occasionally advocated for use in patients with heart disease as well. The following information covers only the most commonly used drugs in each class, and by no means is a comprehensive review. It is very important that all cardiac drugs intended for use in dogs in cats are placed out of the reach of children and are not to be taken by human beings. If accidental ingestion occurs, please seek immediate medical attention and/or contact a poison control center. Discontinuation or changes in the doses of these medications in pets suffering from heart failure should be supervised by a veterinarian. This decreases the total blood volume the failing heart has to deal with, allowing for the reabsorption of fluid accumulation. Patients taking diuretics should have bloodwork performed periodically to monitor for potential problems. Patients taking multiple diuretics should be monitored closely at home for any problems, and suspension of therapy may be advised if patients quit eating or start vomiting. A loop diuretic, this drug prevents the absorption of chloride, sodium, potassium and water, leading to an increased volume of urine. It is a potent diuretic drug used to reduce fluid accumulation and prevent further edema. Adverse effects include electrolyte disturbances, low blood potassium and dehydration. Discontinue this medication if your pet stops eating or starts vomiting, and notify your veterinarian immediately. Spironolactone also blocks the adverse effects of aldosterone on the heart muscle. Some adverse effects associated with spironolactone include dehydration, low blood pressure, high blood potassium, lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea.
Treatment Supportive o Low fat diet sildalist 120 mg with visa, oral fluids sildalist 120 mg otc, o Give paracetamol (dose as above) if pain present Specific treatment o The use of interferon alfa in children has not yet established order 120 mg sildalist visa. Acute infection is often milder than Hepatitis A with moderately raised transaminases buy cheap sildalist 120mg on line. Rabies Rabies is a zoonotic (transmitted from animals) viral neuroinvasive disease caused by a virus that belongs to genus lyssavirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. It is transmitted most commonly to human by a bite from an infected animal but occasionally by other forms of contact. Rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. The incubation period of the disease depends on how far the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system, may take one week to six months. Once the infection reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is practically untreatable and usually fatal within days. Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise, headache and fever, later progressing to more serious ones, including acute pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression and inability to swallow water. Finally, the patient may experience periods of mania and lethargy, followed by coma. In unvaccinated humans, rabies is almost always fatal after neurological symptoms have developed, but prompt post-exposure vaccination may prevent the virus from progressing. For rabies-exposed patients who have previously undergone complete pre-exposure vaccination or post-exposure treatment with cell-derived rabies vaccines, antirabies vaccines are given at days 0 and 3 regardless of route of administration i. The same rules apply to persons vaccinated against rabies who have demonstrated neutralizing antibody titres of at least 0. Transmission The natural reservoir of the virus is unknown, the manner in which the virus first appears in a human at the start of an outbreak has not been determined. Researchers have hypothesized that the first patient becomes infected through contact with an infected animal. After the first case-patient in an outbreak setting is infected, the virus can be transmitted in several ways: – Direct contact with blood or other secretions of an infected person (blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids) – Exposure to Ebola virus through contact with objects, such as needles, that has been contaminated with infected secretions. Signs and symptoms start with sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, Headache and Sore throat. These symptoms are followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver functions. In some cases; rash, red eyes, hiccups, both internal and external bleeding can occur. Treatment There is no specific treatment, cure, or vaccine for Marburg Hemorrhagic fever. These include: o Fluid and Electrolyte balancing o Maintaining oxygen status o Blood transfusion and clotting factors o Treat for any complicating infections. It is related to Ebola virus and a parent type belongs to Viral Hemorrhagic fevers of Filoviridae family. Mode of transmission How the animal host first transmits Marburg virus to humans is unknown. However, humans who become ill with Marburg hemorrhagic fever virus may spread virus to other people. For example, persons who have handled infected monkeys and have come in direct contact with their fluids or cell cultures have become infected. Spread of the virus between humans has occurred in a setting of close contact, often in a hospital. Droplets of body fluids, or direct contact with persons, equipment, or other objects contaminated with infectious blood or tissues are all highly suspect as sources of disease. Transmission through infected semen can occur up to seven weeks after clinical recovery. Signs and symptoms are into two phases: Phase One: Sudden onset of fever, chills, headache and myalgia. Phase Two: Maculopapular rashes, Trunk rash, Nausea, Vomiting, Sore throat, Abdominal pain, Diarrhea, Jaundice, Pancreas inflammation, Severe weight loss Liver failure, Massive hemorrhage (all orifices), Multi-organ dysfunction, Delirium, Shock, and Death. These include: 353 | P a g e o Fluid and Electrolyte balancing o Maintaining oxygen status o Blood transfusion and clotting factors o Treat for any complicating infections. Transmission to human is mainly through direct or indirect contact with blood or organs of infected animals. The virus can be transmitted to human through the handling of animal tissue during slaughtering or butchering, assisting with animal births, conducting veterinary procedures. Human become viraemic; capable of infecting mosquitoes shortly before onset of fever and for the first 3–5 days of illness. Signs and symptoms are Influenza like illnesses: sudden onset of fevers, headache, myalgia, backache neck stiffness photophobia and vomiting. Most human cases are relatively mild small proportion develop a much more severe disease. Symptoms last from 4-7 days after which the immune response to infection becomes detectable with appearance of IgM and IgG. Most of human cases are relatively mild and of short duration so will not require any specific treatment. Though many cases of yellow fever are mild and self-limiting, the disease can also be a life threatening causing hemorrhagic fever and hepatitis. It is endemic in equatorial Africa and South America, with estimated 200,000 cases and 30,000 deaths annually. Overall case-fatality rate in Africa 23% Incubation period of 2-6 days and human become viremic - capable of infecting mosquitoes, shortly before onset of fever and for the first 3–5 days of illness. Once infected, mosquitoes remain so for life Treatment, prevention and control No specific anti-viral treatment, supportive therapies are recommended. Prevention and Control involve mosquito control and provision of yellow fever vaccine. Indication for Yellow fever vaccine: • persons ≥ 9 months of age – Planning travel to or residence in an endemic area – Planning travel to a country with an entry requirement • Needs to be given ≥ 10 days prior to arrival in endemic area • Revaccination at 10 year intervals 6. Table 2: The schedule for immunization for children is as follow: Age Vaccine Type of vaccine/state Disease Remarks (dose, Protection prevented site and route) Birth 1. Pentavalent Liquid Hepatitis B (Left thigh) Haemophilus influenza type b infections 3 Months 1. Pentavalent Liquid (Left thigh) Full dose 10 years 9 Months Measles Live attenuated / Freeze Measles 0. Onset of kala-azar is shown by low grade fever, splenomegaly, enlarged liver and lymphadenopathy. In the cutaneous form, single or multiple lesions are found on exposed parts, from where Leishmania Donovan bodies can be demonstrated. If parasites persist, treatment may be repeated, two to three times with a ten day interval in between. Since an immediate hypotensive reaction may occur, patients should lie down during the injection and adrenaline should be at hand. Further, due to possible nephrotoxicity, urine must be examined for albumin and/or casts.
E c Patients with diabetes residing in long-term care facilities need careful assess- ment to establish glycemic goals and to make appropriate choices of glucose- lowering agents based on their clinical and functional status buy 120mg sildalist visa. E c Overall comfort generic sildalist 120mg amex, prevention of distressing symptoms order sildalist 120 mg amex, and preservation of quality of life and dignity are primary goals for diabetes management at the end of life discount 120 mg sildalist otc. E Suggested citation: American Diabetes Asso- Diabetes is an important health condition for the aging population; approximately ciation. In Standards of one-quarter of people over the age of 65 years have diabetes (1), and this pro- Medical Care in Diabetesd2017. Older adults with diabetes also are at greater risk than other for proﬁt, and the work is not altered. More infor- older adults for several common geriatric syndromes, such as polypharmacy, cog- mation is available at http://www. S100 Older Adults Diabetes Care Volume 40, Supplement 1, January 2017 Screening for diabetes complications in simplify drug regimens and to involve older adults for cognitive dysfunction older adults should be individualized and caregivers in all aspects of care. Hypoglycemic screening tests may impact therapeutic with a decline in cognitive function events should be diligently monitored approaches and targets. Older adults are (11), and longer duration of diabetes and avoided, whereas glycemic targets at increased risk for depression and worsens cognitive function. There are and pharmacologic interventions may should therefore be screened and treat- ongoing studies evaluating whether pre- need to be adjusted to accommodate ed accordingly (2). Diabetes manage- venting or delaying diabetes onset may for the changing needs of the older ment may require assessment of help to maintain cognitive function in adult (3). Particular attention should targets have not demonstrated a reduc- The care of older adults with diabetes is be paid to complications that can de- tion in brain function decline (12). Some that would signiﬁcantly impair functional carefully screened and monitored for older individuals may have developed status, such as visual and lower-extremity cognitive impairment (3). Annual ity, limited cognitive or physical func- nitive impairment ranges from subtle screening for cognitive impairment is tioning, or frailty (19,20). Other older executive dysfunction to memory loss indicated for adults 65 years of age or individuals with diabetes have little co- and overt dementia. People with diabe- older for early detection of mild cogni- morbidity and are active. Life expectan- tes have higher incidences of all-cause tive impairment or dementia (15). Peo- ciesarehighlyvariablebutareoften dementia, Alzheimer disease, and vas- ple who screen positive for cognitive longer than clinicians realize. Providers cular dementia than people with normal impairment should receive diagnostic caring for older adults with diabetes glucose tolerance (6). The effects of hy- assessment as appropriate, including must take this heterogeneity into consid- perglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on referral to a behavioral health provider eration when setting and prioritizing the brain are areas of intense research. Recent pilot studies in It is also important to carefully assess Healthy Patients With Good patients with mild cognitive impairment and reassess patients’ risk for worsening Functional Status evaluating the potential beneﬁts of in- of glycemic control and functional de- There are few long-term studies in older tranasal insulin therapy and metformin cline. Older adults are at higher risk of adults demonstrating the beneﬁts of in- therapy provide insights for future clini- hypoglycemia for many reasons, includ- tensive glycemic, blood pressure, and cal trials and mechanistic studies (8–10). Patients who can be ex- The presence of cognitive impairment sulin therapy and progressive renal pected to live long enough to reap the can make it challenging for clinicians to insufﬁciency. In addition, older adults beneﬁts of long-term intensive diabetes help their patients to reach individual- tend to have higher rates of unidentiﬁed management, who have good cognitive ized glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid cognitive deﬁcits, causing difﬁculty in and physical function, and who choose targets. These cognitive deﬁcits tions and goals similar to those for ing and adjusting insulin doses. As with hinders their ability to appropriately risk of hypoglycemia, and, conversely, all patients with diabetes, diabetes self- maintain the timing and content of severe hypoglycemia has been linked management education and ongoing diet. There- diabetes self-management support are these types of patients, it is critical to fore, it is important to routinely screen vital components of diabetes care care. Self-management knowledge and skills should be reassessed when regimen changes aremadeoranindividual’s functional abilities diminish. In addition, declining or impaired ability to perform diabetes self-care behaviors may be an indication for referral of older adults with diabetes for cognitive and physical functional as- sessment using age-normalized evalua- tion tools (16,22). Patients With Complications and Reduced Functionality Forpatientswithadvanceddiabetes complications, life-limiting comorbid ill- nesses, or substantial cognitive or func- tional impairments, it is reasonable to set less intensive glycemic goals. These patients are less likely to beneﬁtfrom reducing the risk of microvascular com- plications and more likely to suffer seri- ous adverse effects from hypoglycemia. However, patients with poorly con- trolled diabetes may be subject to acute complications of diabetes, including de- hydration, poor wound healing, and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma. Vulnerable Patients at the End of Life For patients receiving palliative care and end-of-life care, the focus should be to avoid symptoms and complications from glycemic management. Thus, when organ failure develops, several agents will have to be titrated or discon- tinued. There is, however, no consensus for the management of type 1 diabetes in this scenario (23,24). Beyond Glycemic Control Although hyperglycemia control may be important in older individuals with dia- betes, greater reductions in morbidity and mortality are likely to result from control of other cardiovascular risk factors rather than from tight glycemic control alone. There is strong evidence from clin- ical trials of the value of treating hyperten- sion in older adults (25,26). There is less evidence for lipid-lowering therapy and aspirin therapy, although the beneﬁts of these interventions for primary preven- tion and secondary intervention are likely to apply to older adults whose life expectancies equal or exceed the time frames of the clinical trials. Insulin therapy relies on the abil- and procedures for prevention and cially as older adults tend to be on ity of the older patient to administer in- management of hypoglycemia. Recent stud- prove the management of older adults Once-daily basal insulin injection ther- ies have indicated that it may be used with diabetes. Treatments for each pa- apy is associated with minimal side ef- safely in patients with estimated glomer- tient should be individualized. Special fects and may be a reasonable option in 2 management considerations include ular ﬁltration rate $30 mL/min/1. However, it is contraindicated in pa- theneedtoavoidbothhypoglycemia jections of insulin may be too complex tients with advancedrenalinsufﬁciency or and the metabolic complications of di- for the older patient with advanced di- signiﬁcant heart failure. Other Factors to Consider of Diabetes in Long-term Care and The needs of older adults with diabetes Skilled Nursing Facilities: A Position Thiazolidinediones Statement of the American Diabetes and their caregivers should be evaluated Thiazolidinediones, if used at all, should Association” (32). Social be used very cautiously in those with, difﬁculties may impair their quality of or at risk for, congestive heart failure and Nutritional Considerations life and increase the risk of functional those at risk for falls or fractures. The patient’s living sit- may have irregular and unpredictable meal Insulin Secretagogues uation must be considered, as it may consumption, undernutrition, anorexia, Sulfonylureas and other insulin secreta- affect diabetes management and sup- and impaired swallowing. Social and instrumental support therapeutic diets may inadvertently mia and should be used with caution. Diets tailored to a pa- ide is a longer-duration sulfonylurea and with diabetes should be included in di- tient’s culture, preferences, and per- contraindicated in older adults (29). Incretin-Based Therapies life, satisfaction with meals, and nutri- Older adults in assisted living facilities Oral dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors tion status (35). A systematic ing centers) may rely completely on the especially vulnerable to hypoglycemia.
S26 Comprehensive Medical Evaluation and Assessment of Comorbidities Diabetes Care Volume 40 cheap 120mg sildalist, Supplement 1 generic 120 mg sildalist visa, January 2017 (9–13) and should be a target of ongo- and implementing an approach to glycemic Pneumococcal Pneumonia ing assessment safe 120 mg sildalist, patient education generic sildalist 120mg with amex, control with the patient is a part, not the Like inﬂuenza, pneumococcal pneumonia and treatment planning. There c Conﬁrm the diagnosis and classify is sufﬁcient evidence to support that diabetes $6monthsofage. B adults with diabetes ,65 years of age c Vaccination against pneumonia is c Detect diabetes complications and have appropriate serologic and clinical re- recommended for all people with potential comorbid conditions. This may plications, psychosocial assessment, with diabetes who are age 19–59 be due to contact with infected blood or management of comorbid conditions, years. C through improper equipment use (glucose and engagement of the patient through- c Consider administering 3-dose se- monitoring devices or infected needles). The goal is to provide ries of hepatitis B vaccine to un- Because of the higher likelihood of trans- the health care team information to opti- vaccinated adults with diabetes mission, hepatitis B vaccine is recom- mally support a patient. Consider adolescent vaccination schedule is avail- that affect people with diabetes and may the assessment of sleep pattern and dura- able at http://www. Diabetes tion; a recent meta-analysis found that schedules/hcp/imz/child-adolescent. Patients should receive Inﬂuenza type 1 diabetes for autoimmune recommended preventive care services Inﬂuenza is a common, preventable in- thyroid disease and celiac disease (e. E smoking cessation counseling; and oph- mortality and morbidity in vulnera- thalmological, dental, and podiatric re- ble populations including the young and People with type 1 diabetes are at in- ferrals. Additional referrals should be the elderly and people with chronic dis- creased risk for other autoimmune dis- arranged as necessary (Table 3. In a case-control study, the inﬂu- eases including thyroid disease, primary cians should ensure that individuals with enza vaccine was found to reduce adrenal insufﬁciency, celiac disease, auto- diabetes are appropriately screened for diabetes-related hospital admission by immune gastritis, autoimmune hepatitis, complications and comorbidities. Type 1 diabetes may also occur shared risk factors between type 2 diabetes be tailored to avoid signiﬁcant hy- with other autoimmune diseases in the and cancer (older age, obesity, and physical poglycemia. B context of speciﬁc genetic disorders or pol- inactivity) but may also be due to diabetes- yglandular autoimmune syndromes (27). It is Patients with diabetes should be encour- likely that many factors trigger autoim- agedtoundergorecommendedage- mune disease; however, common trigger- and sex-appropriate cancer screenings and Table 3. The association may result from S28 Comprehensive Medical Evaluation and Assessment of Comorbidities Diabetes Care Volume 40, Supplement 1, January 2017 dementia (30,31). A recent meta-analysis Cochrane review found insufﬁcient evi- general population and include vitamin of prospective observational studies in dence to recommend any dietary change D supplementation. For patients with people with diabetes showed a 73% in- for the prevention or treatment of cogni- type 2 diabetes with fracture risk factors, creased risk of all types of dementia, a tive dysfunction (40). A systematic review has reported that dementia compared with individuals data do not support an adverse effect of Hearing Impairment without diabetes (32). In a 15-year prospective study of com- tive-related adverse events, including and/or vascular disease. Therefore fear of with diabetes compared with those with- Alzheimer disease, and vascular dementia cognitive decline should not be a barrier out, after adjusting for age and other risk compared withrates inthose with normal to statin use in individuals with diabetes factors for hearing impairment (50). In some cases, antihypergly- Recommendations tured program, blood glucose awareness cemic agents may still be necessary. Treatment behaviors and those who express Recommendations in asymptomatic men is controversial. The fear, dread, or irrational thoughts c Providers should consider annual evidence that testosterone replacement and/or show anxiety symptoms screening of all patients with dia- affects outcomes is mixed, and recent such as avoidance behaviors, exces- betes, especially those with a self- guidelines do not recommend testing or sive repetitive behaviors, or social reported history of depression, for treating men without symptoms (56). B appropriate depression screening Obstructive Sleep Apnea c Persons with hypoglycemic un- measures, recognizing that further Age-adjusted rates of obstructive sleep awareness, which can co-occur evaluation will be necessary for apnea, a risk factor for cardiovascular with fear of hypoglycemia, should individuals who have a positive disease, are signiﬁcantly higher (4- to be treated using blood glucose screen. B 10-fold) with obesity, especially with awareness training (or other c Beginning at diagnosis of complica- central obesity (57). The prevalence of evidence-based similar intervention) tions or when there are signiﬁcant obstructive sleep apnea in the popula- to help re-establish awareness of changes in medical status, consider tion with type 2 diabetes may be as high hypoglycemia and reduce fear of assessment for depression. A c Referrals for treatment of depres- disordered breathing may be as high as 58% (58,59). Common use are risk factors for the development Periodontal disease is more severe, and diabetes-speciﬁc concerns include fears of type 2 diabetes, especially if the indi- maybemoreprevalent,inpatients related to hyperglycemia (68,69), not vidual has other risk factors such as obe- with diabetes than in those without meeting blood glucose targets (66), and sity and family history of type 2 diabetes (62,63). Elevated depressive symptoms that periodontal disease adversely af- of complications presents another critical and depressive disorders affect one in fects diabetes outcomes, although ev- point when anxiety can occur (71). People four patients with type 1 or type 2 di- idence for treatment beneﬁts remains with diabetes who exhibit excessive di- abetes (80). Multipayer patient-centered medical home implementation guided by the rates of depression than men (81). Jt Comm J Qual Patient Routine monitoring with patient- behavior should be considered (85,91). Ad- Saf 2011;37:265–273 appropriate validated measures can junctive medication such as glucagon-like 4. Lancet 1998; need for ongoing monitoring of depression intake, thus having the potential to re- 352:837–853 recurrence within the context of routine duce uncontrollable hunger and bulimic 5. Serious Mental Illness treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin- When a patient is in psychological ther- Recommendations dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; apy (talk therapy), the mental health pro- c Annually screen people who are 329:977–986 vider should be incorporated into the prescribed atypical antipsychotic 6. Effect medications for prediabetes or of glycemic exposure on the risk of microvascu- diabetes. B lar complications in the Diabetes Control and Disordered Eating Behavior c If a second-generation antipsy- Complications Trialdrevisited. Diabetes 2008; Recommendations chotic medication is prescribed for 57:995–1001 c Providers should consider reevalu- adolescents or adults with diabetes, 7. Beneﬁcial effects of in- ing behavior, an eating disorder, treatment regimen should be reas- tensive therapy of diabetes during adolescence: or disrupted patterns of eating. J Pe- c Consider screening for disor- c Incorporate monitoring of diabetes diatr 2001;139:804–812 dered or disrupted eating using self-care activities into treatment 8. Compliance and validated screening measures goals in people with diabetes and adherence are dysfunctional concepts in diabe- when hyperglycemia and weight serious mental illness. Is self-efﬁcacy associatedwithdiabetesself-managementacross self-reported behaviors related race/ethnicity and health literacy? Diabetes Care Studies of individuals with serious men- to medication dosing, meal plan, 2006;29:823–829 tal illness, particularly schizophrenia and physical activity. Diabetes tial treatment-related effects on Care 2010;33:751–753 should be monitored for type 2 diabetes hunger/caloric intake. Comparison of the role ordered thinking and judgment can be of self-efﬁcacy and illness representations in re- Estimated prevalence of disordered expected to make it difﬁcult to engage lation to dietary self-care and diabetes distress eating behaviors and diagnosable eat- in behaviors that reduce risk factors for in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Psychol ing disorders in people with diabetes type 2 diabetes, such as restrained eat- Health 2009;24:1071–1084 12. Coordinated efﬁcacy and self-care with glycemic control in diabetes, insulin omission causing gly- management of diabetes or prediabetes diabetes. Diabetes Spectr 2013;26:172–178 cosuria in order to lose weight is the and serious mental illness is recommended 13.
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