The Sb 50% inhibitory concentration for the isolates from refractory patients was 741+32 and for the sensitive patients was 381+100 discount stanozolol 2 mg on line, p>0 generic stanozolol 2 mg on-line. Isolates from refractory patients were more infective than isolates from patients responsive to treatment order stanozolol 2 mg with visa, independently of these stimuli and in all times post infection generic 2mg stanozolol with mastercard. Although isolates from refractory patients produced more nitrite than those from responsive, the rate nitrite/amastigotes was six times lower in the macrophage infected by isolates from refractory patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cytokine/chemokine pattern produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon in vitro S. Cytokine/chemokine signatures were analyzed using the concept of low and high-cytokine producers. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de (4) São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil. Introduction and objective: Chagas is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a multifunctional lectin that participates in several biological processes, including modulation of the immune response. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the role of endogenous Gal-1 during the course of experimental T. Introduction: Malaria is characterized by intense activation of the immune system that seems to contribute to protection against infection and to clinical manifestations related to disease. Kinetics of phagocytic cells in the spleen of these infected animals was determined by flow cytometry, in relation to number of cells and cell death. In addition, the percentage of leukocytes cell death found in spleen in the same day was lower in knockout group (12. Conclusion: Mice lacking the P2X7R seem to be more susceptible to the exacerbated immune response that is responsible for clinical symptoms, thus, presenting more severe pathological parameters for more time. Introduction: Macrophages (MØ) display heterogeneous phenotype according to the distribution to different tissue and the cytokine-chemokine networks. Fragments of the footpad, popliteal lymph node, liver, spleen and kidney were submitted to determination of the fungal load. Overtime, they exhibited a reduction of fungal load and, the percentage of this subset returned to normal levels. These data suggest a recompartmentalization of effector cells with cytotoxic activity, which may play a pivotal role in T. Introduction: The Chagas‟ disease is an illness highly neglected caused by Trypanosoma cruzi parasite. Here we study the effects of Zileuton treatment on some parameters of immune response and development of myocarditis during T. Results: We found reduced parasite load in mice treated with Zileuton compared with untreated mice. Furthermore, the Zileuton treatment resulted in lower leukocyte infiltration in cardiac tissue and our electrophysiological analyses, using the patch-clamp technique, demonstrated that the treatment also resulted in the protection of cardiomyocytes activities, including decreased in the repolarization time. Conclusion: Therefore, our results suggest that Zileuton treatment could be a “powerful tool” in the therapeutic field to modulate the development of cardiomyopathy in Chagas‟ disease. However, the role of these receptors in canine visceral leishmaniasis is not yet clear. To check if the apoptosis in T cell is dependent on 6 cell contact, macrophages were infected with 5x10 promastigotes of L. Data were acquired in the cytometer EasyCyteMini and analyzed with the Cytosoft ® software. The results were compared using the Mann-Whitney test, with significance level of 5%. As apoptosis is an important mechanism regulating the activation of lymphocytes, we decided to study the role of lymphocytic apoptosis during a non complicated malaria attack. However, the lack of correlation among apoptosis and parasitemia, number of past malaria attacks and low cellular response, specially against malaria antigens, suggest that apoptosis associated to uncomplicated malaria could be a physiological reaction of the immune system to control polyclonal activation and maintain the balance of these cellular population densities. After last immunization, sera and draining lymph node were collected for serologic tests and quantification of cytokine, respectively. Two, 5 and 7 months after challenge, draining lymph node, spleen and liver were obtained to evaluate parasite load during infection by limiting dilution. No difference was observed in the parasite load in the spleen, liver and lymph node between immunized hamsters and controls at all points of evaluation. Conclusions: There was no protection in immunized animals suggesting that histones are not immunogenic in hamsters and possibly not able to induce a strong Th1 response that would protect in the infection by L. In 2010, this parasitic disease was the underlying cause of death for 1,24 million individuals. Lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage were collected and analyzed at various time-points during infection. An increase of neutrophils was also observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (light microscopy). Preliminar studies from our group suggest that pharmacological intervention on the mast cell compartment (see accompanying abstract by Nascimento et al. Only non- pregnant women with ages between 18 and 50 years were invited to participate. Women positive for endocervical infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in addition to those with candidosis and trichomoniasis, were excluded. Methods and results: The methodology of phage display of biomolecules, developed by Smith (1985), was used in this work. The phage display methodology was presented as an important tool in the development of a diagnostic platform, allowing the characterization of antigenic mimotopes to differentiate active tuberculosis infection. The immune response has many defense mechanisms which result in the inflammation process and the individual resistance to the pathogen. In general, the clinical manifestations are dependent on the concentrations of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to the immunopathology of the disease. Conclusion: Thus, there is an exacerbation in the immune response in malaria caused by infection with P. Vivax malaria was thought to be a benign and self-limited disease for a long time; currently, complications associated to this disease in the Amazon region and other places throughout the world have motivated research of the related immunopathological events. One of the many possible causes for complications may be the genetic characteristics of the species. Taking in consideration that pathological changes in malaria, which determine either alleviation or exacerbation of the disease, also depend of a delicate balance in cytokines milieu, we assessed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines according to the molecular variants of P. Methods and Results: Blood samples from untreated vivax malaria patients (n=28) were used to provide the plasma and red blood cells containing parasites. At all time points tested, the number of infected cells was higher in the ear versus the + footpad.
The ‘‘Sports Creed’’ emphasizing citizenship order 2 mg stanozolol with mastercard, teamwork purchase stanozolol 2 mg with mastercard, mentals and advanced basketball order stanozolol 2 mg amex, but was harsher when he character generic stanozolol 2mg fast delivery, democratic living, and sportsmanship had replaced discussed graduate education. He wrote: ‘‘If I wished to portray the ‘‘Laws of Health’’ as the focal point for physical education the education of teachers in the worst terms, I should quote (15). And, as that took place, the new physical education from the descriptions of some graduate courses in physical curriculum focusing on competitive sports required the hiring education’’ (12). Conant went on to conclude: ‘‘To my mind, a of coaches, not physicians, and favored those students blessed university should cancel graduate programs in this area’’ (12). Deans and department chairs of several Big 10 come apparent as early as World War I when one third of the universities who had come to the same conclusions as Con- 3 million drafted were deemed physically unfit, and those ac- ant, albeit 10 yr earlier, agreed with Henry and reacted with a cepted had to be taught the basic rudiments of hygiene and flurry of changes in the late 1960s. There also were those within physical education, admission standards, departmental reorganization, and an like professor Charles McCloy, an exercise physiologist at emphasis on research were examples. More importantly, the State University of Iowa, who believed his colleagues though, the call for more rigorous programs led to a search for had gotten carried away with sports and games and argued in a legitimate field of study. How could physical education the professional literature for a return to the goals of bodily become an academic discipline? Agreeing that they really had health and physical development from the mid-1930s through no field of scientific study comparable to others at major the 1950s in articles like: ‘‘How about some muscle? Tra- larly, the undisputed leader of the physical culture movement, ditional ties with athletics were severed, and as physical largely popular outside of education, Bernarr Macfadden, who education became more scientific, like medicine had done was ridiculed by medicine and physical education alike, was earlier, and the many ramifications of exercise began to be forthright in his belief in the importance of the ‘‘Laws of studied, new research coming from laboratories housed in 4 Current Sports Medicine Reports www. Our tradition and the ‘‘Laws of Health’’ had preached for centuries educational system was stressing so heavily the public games (29). It was becoming evident that both physical activity and played by a few semi-professional athletes posing as scholars physical inactivity were key elements of health. Cureton_s Fitness Laboratory at the University of Illinois in than one third of all deaths in the United States were due thelate1940sand_50s (4,5), among a few others, along with to unhealthy lifestyles (disobeying the ‘‘Laws of Health’’), the findings of epidemiologists Jeremy Morris and Ralph along with the rise of new wellness, self-help, and holistic Paffenbarger, who linked physical inactivity with a variety health ideals, the acceptance of complementary and alter- of chronic diseases (14). Scientists in these fields, largely lo- native medicines, and the popularity of jogging and other cated in the recently restructured physical education depart- fitness activities like aerobics, bicycling, and running. It was the study of ‘‘heart ning to cause great human suffering and premature death, health’’ particularly that led to early publications like Hypo- affecting 90 million Americans and costing nearly two thirds kinetic Disease: Diseases Produced by Lack of Exercise, by Hans of a trillion dollars in health care expenses as well as lost pro- Kraus and Wilhelm Raab (28). Because of these changes and conclusive data more scientific and medical credibility was further evidenced emerging from the physical activity epidemiology literature, in Warren R. Johnson_s large edited volume, Science and the ancient ‘‘Laws of Health’’ began to regain their lost position Medicine of Exercise and Sports (24). Unique to this research in mainstream medicine, with exercise playing a major role. It was in 1979 their newly named journal in 1980, Research Quarterly for that the Surgeon General_s Report on Health Promotion and Exercise and Sport. Disease Prevention called for an attack on chronic disease with As more and more research linked heightened fitness levels increased attention to physical activity and nutrition (47). These findings and similar data book Sports in America when these chilling reports were being from some of the world_s best physicians and leading scientists published and asked himself, ‘‘What could account for the were expressed more fully in the publication of Physical inferior performance, especially when in Olympic competi- Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General,in1996 tion, or any other kind, our top athletes performed as well (48). Books too, like David Nieman_s The Exercise-Health as those of other countries and oftentimes much better? Illnesses by Making Exercise Your Medicine, began to appear in duty of one_s physician. By 2001, when another Surgeon General_s nearly two thirds of patients would be more interested in Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention was released, exercising to stay healthy if advised by their doctor, we may be physical activity and fitness were at the top of the list of 22 coming to a time in history where we can begin to regain priority areas for improving the nation_s health (40). The tradition of the ‘‘six things non-natural’’: exercise and medicine from Hippocrates through ante-bellum America. Out of Many, One: A History of the American College of our healthcare system would see to it that every patient had Sports Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press; diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, would you prescribe it to 2003, p. Physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study Galson, the Acting Surgeon General, who warned that ‘‘the of healthy men and women. Waging war on modern chronic where V if we, as a nation, are to make truly sustained progress diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology. Domestic Medicine: Or, A Treatise on the Prevention and Cure of Diseases, by Regimen and Simple Medicines. Physical Activity Epi- tively inexpensive way to combat most of the nation_s most demiology. Medical Education in the United States and Canada, Bulletin the United States, and obesity and physical inactivity com- No. New bined, along with smoking, are the top causes of premature York: Carnegie Foundation; 1910. Medicina Gymnastica: Or, a Treatise Concerning the Power of nonnatural tradition for centuries. New York: Harper & author suggested that ‘‘health care professionals, including Row; 1966. Boston: Houghton one of the most important public health problems of the Mifflin; 1963. Hypokinetic Disease; Diseases Produced by Lack of Clinician_s Guide to Exercise Prescription in 2009 (25), brings us Exercise. New York: Academic Press; prescribing lifestyle modification was a regular and expected 1971. Means of Preserving Health, and Preventing Diseases: Founded even a little is good; more is better. Adoption of the sports program, 1906Y39: the role of accom- New York: Collins, Perkins; 1806, p. Volume 9 c Number 4 c July/August 2010 Exercise is Medicine 7 Copyright @ 2010 by the American College of Sports Medicine. If patients do not get kidney donors they can wait for a long time on dialysis and that places a heavy burden on national resources. It also makes it diffcult for clinicians to decide who can be accepted onto the program. The health system in South Africa, like in other countries, is characterized by the existence of both a private and the public sector with different fnancial and human resources. This has to a large extent contributed to the unequal access to chronic renal dialysis for our people. It is my hope that these guidelines will contribute towards the realization of the goals of the government of improving health service delivery and ensuring a better life for all. Dialysis is a method of removing waste products from the body for patients with kidney failure. The settings where dialysis is undertaken are: Hospitals, satellites units and homes.
A recent American survey indicated that two of three patients believed that vitamin C reduced cold symptoms buy stanozolol 2mg with amex. A clinical trial demonstrated an 85% decrease in flu and cold symptoms in the test group order stanozolol 2mg with mastercard, compared with the control group order 2mg stanozolol mastercard. In one review 23 studies were analyzed purchase stanozolol 2 mg without prescription, and the authors concluded that vitamin C in daily doses of 2 g or greater was most effective in managing the common cold. Trials of zinc supplementation for colds have been ongoing for more than a decade, with contradictory results. Furthermore, not only may the medium in which the active principle is delivered affect outcome, variations in the pathogenesis of the condition may modify therapeutic efficacy. In one trial it was reported that zinc acetate had no effect but that zinc gluconate may reduce the average duration of symptoms by 1 day, from 3. The dose of the nutrient 14 Part One / Principles of Nutritional Medicine used, the frequency and duration of administration, and the form or chemi- cal environment of the supplement all influence outcome. The stage of the infection at which therapy is initiated and the extent to which the supple- ment is absorbed affect efficacy. The patient’s nutritional and immune status, any associated disorders, and other medications also have an impact. A systematic review of current thinking in nutritional medicine is being undertaken; the objective is to determine how food, herbs, and nutrients may promote health and prevent disease. Although superficially the framework of the drug-paradigm testing model provides a gold standard for evaluating nutritional intervention, per- functory implementation of this framework invites erroneous conclusions. Results from clinical trials are poor or largely fail to support epidemiologic findings that suggest antioxidants reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. These include fail- ure to recognize that nutrients achieve their outcome as a result of synergistic metabolic interrelationships, that stereochemistry influences effi- cacy, and that it is simplistic to presume a direct dose-response relationship in a cybernetic system. In contrast, the ability of an intervention to achieve discernible improvement in the individual patient demands recognition within the infomedical model. When certain individuals respond to a nutritional intervention, the frame- work of the infomedical model leads the investigator to consider the reason for such discrepancies. Issues ranging from biologic individuality to age- specific responses need to be addressed. The possibility that subclinical depletion of one or more nutrients may distinguish responders from nonre- sponders needs to be explored. Failure to have prescribed an effective clini- cal dose and the prospect of having unbalanced nutrient-nutrient interactions also need to be considered. Within the infomedical framework, a marginal but statistically insignificant improvement triggers a search for reasons that some patients respond when others do not. Instead of encour- aging rejection of the intervention, such a marginal improvement serves as an impetus for further investigation to achieve better understanding. Reliable information about the efficacy, safety, and cost of nutrient and herbal interventions is a prerequisite for cost-effective care. Such data are not always available, and concern has been expressed that control of nutritional Chapter 1 / The Science of Nutritional Medicine 15 and herbal products by licensing of remedies with equivocal benefits and few risks, as evidenced by a long history of safe use, may increase societal health care costs. However, a calculation based on observational data sug- gests that 170 to 250 persons would need to take vitamin E for 10 years to prevent one myocardial infarction or stroke. A protective effect of vitamin E against fatal myocardial infarction has not been demonstrated. It is possible, or even probable, that each condition for which a nutrient provides benefit will have a unique dose-effect curve. Because of the great amount of time required, conduction of trials that adequately probe the dose-effect curve for promising nutrients for each condition they might affect or studies of all the possible combinations of other micronutrients that might act to enhance effectiveness is an insurmountable task. It has even been suggested that a new paradigm needs to be used whereby the pharmacologic effects of traditional herbs such as ginseng can be understood in the light of their polyvalent actions as demonstrated by ginseng saponins with their positive antimuta- genic, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antidiabetes, and neurovascular effects. In fact, for most psychiatric disorders, a given treatment is not considered effective without a placebo control. The placebo response rate in psychiatric conditions varies widely across patient groups; it may be as high as 65% in a group of patients with major depression. For example, it is difficult to judge how much of the clinical improvement is due to the treatment in open studies in which a treatment is given to a group of patients and their response is hypotheti- cally contrasted to the treatment outcome with a known drug. A second type of investigation compares the experimental treatment with a drug of estab- lished efficacy. Even if an experimental treatment appears comparable to a standard drug in terms of response, it may be that a placebo would have done as well as either treatment over the course of the study. Investigations in which a treatment is compared with placebo, sometimes with the use of a standard drug as a third arm of the study, therefore remain an important dimension in therapeutic validation. Such methodological modifications are making it increasingly appropriate and feasible to evaluate alternative med- icine by means of scientifically accepted methodology. The infomedical model accepts that intervention in the face of uncertainty is normal. The biomedical model provides a research methodology for min- imizing such uncertainty. It provides a system for incrementally increasing understanding and reducing, but not eliminating, uncertainty. Modern nutritional science and herbal medicine need to continue to build on an eclectic science. Within an eclectic science, clinical trials that show benefit but not statistical significance are also recognized as contributing to knowledge. Although review of these trials should be rigorously undertaken to identify methodological flaws such as an inappropriate combination of nutrients, failure to use a pharmacologically active dose, and inadequate attention to individual biologic variation, contributions from these studies should not be automatically discarded. The clinical reality of nutritional medicine is that it is the response of each individual, and not the population norm, that mat- ters. Ultimately, patients remain the best index of therapeutic efficacy (see Case Study). Claims that a protocol lacks adequate scientific validation should serve to trigger further clinical investigation; even flawed trials may alert investigators to particular subgroups. Evidence accumulated from the clinical experience of practitioners can no longer be ignored. It is the task of future studies to identify populations that can benefit from nutritional and herbal supplementation, to define doses and treatment dura- tion, to recognize drug interactions, and in the case of nutrients, to clarify whether mixtures, rather than single nutrients, are more advantageous. The infomedical model ensures a patient-centered focus, and the biomedical model seeks to balance the benefits and risks of intervention. The treatment program can be applied to any acute viral infection including influenza, infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever), and the common cold. M had a massive outbreak of vesicles on her trunk, limbs, and face; but the most serious were those in her nasopharynx extending to the laryngopharynx and esophagus. It was midnight when she called, and I began making preparations for immediate admission to the infectious diseases hospital.
Letters in Applied any proﬁle of the ‘normal’ composition of the Microbiology 36 discount stanozolol 2 mg mastercard, 50–53 stanozolol 2mg on-line. Applied Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteriophage for and Environmental Microbiology 32 generic 2mg stanozolol otc, 68–74 2 mg stanozolol free shipping. Applied and Environmental Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health Microbiology 69, 6507–6514. Bacteriophages presence in human faeces of Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 11, healthy subjects and patients with 2–14. Water Science and International Journal of Food Microbiology 111, Technology 31, 223–230. Letters in (2011) Mucosal bioﬁlm communities in the Applied Microbiology 39, 215–219. Lactobacillus phages isolated from women in (2011) The human gut virome: inter-individual the United States and Turkey: prevalence, variation and dynamic response to diet. Journal of Evidence of a robust resident bacteriophage Applied Microbiology 107, 1–13. Folia Microbiol (Praha) [Epub ahead of environmental samples for source-speciﬁc print] bacteriophage hosts using a method for Linhares, I. Letarov life cycle and virulence of Pseudomonas administered therapeutic candidate aeruginosa are dependent on a ﬁlamentous bacteriophages in healthy and neutropenic prophage. Journal of Applied Microbiology 92, 657– enhances phage survival in mouse circulatory 667. In a very real has demonstrated that many of the virulence sense, then, there exist diseases that can be factor molecules (also called pathogenicity atributed, to a large extent, to the action of factors) that allow bacteria to be more phages. Temperate clean water, adequate nutrition, vaccinations phage genomes can, in turn, reside semi- and eﬀective antibiotics, however, in many permanently within bacteria as prophages, cases we have all but forgoten what many of forming what are commonly described as these diseases are like, although that is not bacterial lysogens, or simply lysogens. In necessarily true in countries or regions that some cases, these prophages have only lack these health-promoting services. This recently been acquired by the bacteria, while relative lack of rampant infectious disease in other cases they have resided within the indeed is only relatively recently the case, bacterial lineage for many generations. Overall, the number of virulence contrast, few American physicians of more factors that are prophage associated is both recent generations have even seen diphtheria, large and diverse (see Christie et al. The evolution of many physicians practising in the afermath of the bacterial pathogens thus appears to be as break up of the Soviet Union (Vitek et al. In Haiti, a cholera epidemic, also a mediated horizontal gene transfer (Relman, lysogen-mediated disease, followed the 2011). Many of the resulting lysogen- breakdown in public heath afer the 2010 associated diseases are in fact explicitly earthquake. The dreaded the variety of toxins at the molecular level is ‘bad’ Escherichia coli, E. This then is an introduction ‘bad’ particularly because of the prophage- to the dark side of phages: diseases that are encoded Shiga toxin. Lysogen-mediated aided and abeted especially by temperate diseases thus exist as more than just historical phages and the lysogenic-converting genes oddities. To orient the reader, in this chapter we provide The classical example of a phage-mediated as an overview of various diseases that are well as exotoxin-mediated disease is diph- associated with virulence factors that are theria. Diphtheria is exhaustive but provides an overview to show caused by infection with Corynebacterium the scope of illnesses caused by these virulence diphtheriae, a Gram-positive, facultative factors. A clinically similar this monograph into the realm of the purely disease can be caused by Corynebacterium medical before returning to emphases that are ulcerans strains that also produce diphtheria more abstract or molecular. Organisms with toxigenic prophage(s) Disease/syndrome Clostridium botulinum Botulism Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Diphtheria, cutaneous infections Corynebacterium ulcerans Escherichia coli, especially Shiga-toxigenic E. Diseases Caused by Phages 23 volume) for a more detailed discussion of the that are found especially in soil environ- phages and conversion factors involved. Clostridium-associated diseases in- Diphtheria, as an upper respiratory tract clude tetanus, gas gangrene and botulism – infection, typically starts as a fever and sore which are caused by Clostridium tetani, throat but progresses to a swollen neck and a Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botu- grey ‘pseudomembrane’ that adheres to the linum, respectively – along with Clostridium tonsils and throat. The pseudomembrane can diﬃcile-associated diarrhoea and pseudo- block the airway and suﬀocate a child, membranous colitis. Only in the case of some particularly a small child with a small air- (but not all) C. Diphtheria toxin can also enter the these species’ pathogenicity factors known to bloodstream and cause damage to the heart be phage encoded. Occasionally, a cutaneous molecular aspects of the later is found in infection is seen, causing skin lesions that Christie et al. Transmission is usually The predominant symptom of botulism via contact with respiratory secretions, is paralysis, ﬁrst aﬀecting the head (eyes and although the exudates in cutaneous lesions mouth), resulting in vision problems and are also infectious. Eventually, the a function of the diphtheria exotoxin, with breathing muscles become impaired, leading the phage-encoded virulence factor synthe- to death due to respiratory failure (Sobel, sized particularly in response to iron 2005). While the toxin molecules bind diphtheria involve the presence of anti-toxin irreversibly to neurons, the cells will re- antibodies, which serve to neutralize the generate over time if the patient survives, and toxin. These vaccines can be canned foods that have not been successfully viewed as anti-phage or at least anti-phage heat treated to kill spores (Sobel, 2005). Such treatments, high pH of an infant’s gastric secretions, however, are associated with serum sickness, which allows the spores to survive and as the patient’s immune system reacts to the germinate in the infant. Administration of horse-serum also occur when spores from soil contaminate anti-toxin none the less continues to be a and then grow within a wound, resulting in treatment option (Ciok, 2000). Thus, unlike botulism food poisoning, which is a consequence of in- gestion of toxin rather than spores, botulism Botulism in infants as well as wound botulism are consequences of direct exposure to spores. The clostridia are a group of Gram-positive, Although the botulinum toxin is con- spore-forming, obligately anaerobic bacteria sidered to be the most potent of the known 24 S. The later can include proper temporary muscle paralysis, as used for the cooking, as the botulinum toxin is treatment of deep facial wrinkles associated permanently denatured at relatively low with facial muscle contraction. Killing considered a medical application of a phage- spores requires pressure cooking or auto- encoded toxin, although there are both claving at 121°C (250°F) for at least 3 min. Notwith- similar to those of botulism, including standing this phage association and indeed potentially life-threatening swallowing and cause of some of this food-borne disease, breathing diﬃculties and even death. This raises the question of the utility that the toxin could provide to phages other than supplying some useful function to Staphylococcus Infection bacterial hosts upon lysogen formation (Abedon and LeJeune, 2005). See Hyman and Among Gram-positive pathogens possessing Abedon (2008) for additional discussion on phage-associated pathogenicity, perhaps the the role of pathogenicity factors in phage- most notorious is Staphylococcus aureus. Other phage-encoded virulence neurotoxin types A and B following immuni- factors include staphylokinase, chemotaxis zation with pentavalent botulinum toxoid. Although not a direct consequence of Unlike diphtheria, no anti-botulism phage-encoded proteins, S. Botulism becoming increasingly resistant to common Diseases Caused by Phages 25 antibiotics, with some strains of methicillin- inﬂammation, ofen described as a ‘spider resistant S. It may eventually form a pustule, and very limited antibiotic choices, sometimes may progress to more serious infection limited to intravenous vancomycin, as oral including septic shock. The (‘ﬂesh-eating bacteria’) is typically caused by coincidence of the acquisition of methicillin Streptococcus pyogenes but can be caused by S. This fasciitis typically presents with mediated evolution of a virulent community- severe pain in a moderate infection, pain that acquired strain has focused much public and is typically out of proportion to the physical medical concern on drug-resistant strains of signs of infection. These of vancomycin has also resulted in the infections may occur due to infected appearance of increasingly vancomycin- intravenous lines or intravenous drug abuse, resistant and -intermediate-resistant strains.
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