By L. Kirk. Huntingdon College.
Hans Freyer discount viagra plus 400mg on-line, "Der Arzt und die Gesellschaft cheap 400mg viagra plus mastercard," in Der Arzt und der Stoat (Leipzig: Thieme 1929) discount viagra plus 400mg overnight delivery. Richard Toellner will publish a parallel volume purchase 400mg viagra plus with amex, Erfahrung und Denken in der Medizin. For a dozen sociological perspectives on the contemporary hospital, consult Eliot Freidson, ed. Ironically, it was only the other inmates who suspected that the pseudopatients were normal. The hospital personnel were not able to acknowledge normal behavior within the hospital milieu. Szasz, Manufacture of Madness: A Comparative Study of the Inquisition and the Mental Health Movement (New York: Harper & Row, 1970). Ronald Leifer, In the Name of Mental Health: Social Functions of Psychiatry (New York: Aronson, 1969). Erving Goffman, Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates (1961; paperback ed. He promises to raise the epistomological question about sickness in general in a book soon to be published by Harper & Row. At the time of dismissal less than one-third have understood what disease they have been treated for, and less than one-fourth, what therapy they have been subjected to. Negrete, "Doctor- Patient Communication," Scientific American 227 (August 1972): 66-9. Georges Contenau, La Mdicine en Assyrie et en Babylonie (Paris: Librairie Maloine, 1938). In contrast, for a history of medical language see Johannes Steudel, Die Sprache des Arztes: Ethjmologie und Geschichte medizinischer Termini (seen only in extracts). The "season" at the great spas played a political function analogous to summit meetings today. See Walter Ruegg, "Der Kranke in der Sicht der brgerlichen Gesellschaft an der Schwelle des 19. Jahrhunderts," and Johannes Steudel, "Therapeutische und soziologische Funktion der Mineralbder im 19. Edwards (New York: Macmillan, 1967), 2:307-9, gives a short and lucid introduction to the knowledge of death and of the fear of death. Jos Echeverria, Rflexions mtaphysiques sur la mart et le problme du sujet (Paris: J. Christian von Ferber, "Soziologische Aspekte des Todes: Ein Versuch ber einige Beziehungen der Soziologie zur philosophischen Anthropologie," Zeitschrift fr evangelische Ethnik 7 (1963): 338-60. The author believes that death repressed, rendered private and a matter for professionals only, reinforces the exploitative class structure of society. Garrison, "The Grfeek Cult of the Dead and the Chthonian Deities in Ancient Medicine," Annals of Medical History 1 (1917): 35-53. Jocelyn Mary Catherine Toynbee, Death and Burial in the Roman World (London: Thames & Hudson, 1971). Sauer, Untersuchungen zur Darstellung des Todes in der griechisch-rmischen Geschichtsschreibung (Frankfurt, 1930). Kroll, "Tod und Teufel in der Antike," Verhandlungm der Versammlung deutscher Philologen 56 (1926). A synopsis in English: Philippe Aries, Western Attitudes Towards Death: From the Middle Ages to the Present, trans. I am interested in the image of this natural death, and its evolution during the four centuries in which it was common in Western civilizations. I owe the idea of approaching my subject in this way to Werner Fuchs, Todesbilder in der modernen Gesellschaft (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1969). Backman, Religious Dances in the Christian Church and in Popular Medicine (Stockholm, 1948); trans. Religiongeschichtlich," in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Tbingen: 1962), 6:612-14: For the history of dances in or around Christian churches, see L. Baloch, "Tnze in Kirche und Kirchhfen," Niederdeutsche Zeitschrifi fr Volkskunde, 1928. Spanke, "Tanzmusik in der Kirche des Mittelalters," Neuphilosophische Mitteilungen 31 (1930). Germanic precedents to Christian cemetery dances: Richard Wolfram, Schwerttanz und Mnnerbund (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1937); only partly in print. Ladner, The Idea of Reform: Its Impact on Christian Thought and Action in the Age of the Fathers (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. For Pelagius death was not a punishment for sin, and Adam would have died even had he not sinned. Kathleen Cohen, Metamorphosis of a Death Symbol: The Transi-Tomb in the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance (Los Angeles: Univ. Gruesome tombs meant to teach the living appear first in the last years of the 14th century. The encounter between the living and the dead takes on importance in a new literary genre: Stefan Glixelli, Les Cinq Pomes des trois marts et des trois mfs (Paris: H. The fact that around 1500 death assumes strong skeletal features and a new autonomy does not mean that it had not always borne anthropomorphic features, if not in art, then in legend and poetry. Hartlaub, Zauber des Spiegels: Geschichte und Bedeutung des Spiegels in der Kunst (Munich: Piper, 1951). Hartlaub, "Die Spiegel-bilder des Giovanni Bellini," Pantheon 15 (November 1942): 235-41. The "world" depicted as a female figure in medieval art half angel, half demon represents the power of this-worldly goods, the beauty of nature, but also the decay of all that is human. Rosalind Moss, The Life After Death in Oceania and the Malay Archipelago (1925; Ann Arbor, Mich. Consult also the following works by James George Frazer: Man, God and Immortality (London: MacMillan, 1927); The Belief in Immortality and the Worship of the Dead, vol. Lindner, Hugo van Hqffinannstahls "Jederman" und seine Vorgnger, dissertation, Univ. See also Edelgard Dubruck, The Theme of Death in French Poetry of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (Atlantic Highlands, N. Kurtz, The Dance of Death and the Macabre Spirit in European Literature (New York: Institute of French Studies, 1934). For the new death image of the rising middle classes of the late Middle Ages see Erna Hirsch, Tod und Jenseits im Spmittelalter: Zugleich tin Beitrag zur Kulturgeschichte des deutschen Brgertums, dissertation, Univ. Hellmut Rosenfeld, "Der Totentanz in Deutschland, Frankreich und Italien," Littrature Modeme 5 (1954): 62-80. Rosenfeld is the best introduction to the research and gives a detailed up-to-date bibliography. Clark, The Dance of Death in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (Glasgow: Jackson, 1950). Elf, 1970): reproductions are very clear and are organized according to different themes.
The Moniliaceae are characterized by colorless or light-colored hyphae and conidia; the colonies are usually white cheap viagra plus 400 mg line, green discount 400 mg viagra plus overnight delivery, or yellow viagra plus 400mg otc. The spores appear in unbranched chains on phialides viagra plus 400 mg with amex, the terminal portions of the conidiophores. The last is morphologically similar to the yeasts, and is sometimes classified with them and called the black yeast. Spores are snowshoe shaped and contain transverse and longitudinal septae with pores. The first spore buds off from the conidiophore, then the spore itself buds to form a secondary spore. The spores superficially resemble those of Alternaria but lack the tail appendage. The most prevalent spore type is the macrospore, which is sickle shaped and colorless, and contains transverse septae and a point of attachment at one end. This classification and list of genera are not exhaustive, but do represent most of the important allergenic fungi found in environmental surveys. The fungi listed here are a framework on which an individual allergist can build or make deletions, depending on the region or clinical judgment. Most fungal sensitivity is specific for genus, although species and strain differences have been reported. Where more than one species occurs for a genus, allergenic extracts usually are mixed together, as in Aspergillus mixture or Penicillium mixture. Certain data concerning the prevalence and ecology of fungi make the list less formidable in practice. With the exception of the Pacific Northwest, Alternaria and Cladosporium (Hormodendrum) are the most numerous genera encountered in most surveys of outdoor air. These fungi are field fungi and thrive best on plants in the field and decaying plant parts in the soil. They are mainly seasonal, from spring to late fall, and diminish markedly with the first hard frost. Their spores generally disappear from air samples during the winter months when snow cover is present. These and certain other fungi propagate in the soil, and their spores are released in large numbers when the soil is tilled. Aspergillus in particular thrives on a substrate with low moisture content (12% 16%). These are the two fungi most commonly cultured from houses, especially from basements, crawl spaces, and bedding. Rhizopus causes black moldy bread and proliferates in vegetable bins in homes, especially on onions. The prevalence of skin test reactivity to fungi in allergic patients is not known but may approach 25% of asthmatics in some surveys (148). Most patients allergic to fungi typically react on skin testing to one or more of these allergens. Many patients also react to other fungi, however, and some to fungi other than these four. The designations field and storage fungi or indoor and outdoor fungi are not precise because exceptions are common in environmental surveys. Moreover, indoor colonization from molds varies with the season, particularly in homes that are not air conditioned ( 149). During the warmer months, Alternaria and Cladosporium spores are commonly found indoors, having gained entry into the home through open windows. In contrast to field and storage fungi, yeasts require a high sugar content in their substrates, which limits their habitat. Certain leaves, pasture grasses, and flowers exude a sugary fluid that is a carbon source for the nonfermentative yeasts such as Aureobasidium (Pullularia) and Rhodotorula. The soil is not a good habitat for yeasts unless it is in the vicinity of fruit trees. The relationship of weather to spore dissemination is clinically important, because the symptoms of patients with respiratory allergy are often worse in damp or rainy weather. Most of the common allergenic fungi, such as Aspergillus and Cladosporium, are of the dry spore type, the spores being released by the wind during dry periods. Although these spores are loosened during wet periods and are dispersed by rain droplets, it is unlikely that they are responsible for the mass symptoms that occur during inclement weather. High spore counts are found in clouds and mist, and it is reasonable to attribute some of the symptoms encountered during long periods of high humidity to fungal allergy. Recall that other allergens, such as the house dust mite, also propagate in conditions of high humidity. Snow cover obliterates the outdoor fungal spore count, but the conditions subsequent to thawing predispose to fungal growth and propagation. Greenhouses do show an increased number of spores, particularly when plants are agitated by watering or fanning ( 150). Similar studies in laboratory animal care units fail to show excessive numbers of fungal spores ( 151). Several reviews of fungal sensitivity and the classification of fungi are available ( 107,133,134,152). In 1921, Kern ( 153) demonstrated that house dust extracts produced positive skin test results in many patients with asthma. In 1964, Voorhorst and co-workers reexamined and subsequently expanded the knowledge of the relationships among house dust, mites, and human allergic disorders ( 154). These Dutch workers are to be credited with sparking the worldwide interest in mites as allergens. Miyamoto and associates in Japan (155,156,157,158 and 159) corroborated and expanded the previous work. They discovered that the potency of house dust allergen is related to the number of mites in the dust. It has been reported that exposure to house dust mite allergen in early childhood is an important determinant in the development of asthma ( 160). The family Pyroglyphidae contains most of the mites important in house dust allergy, but Tyroglyphidae are important in storage mite sensitivity. Mites found in houses are called domestic mites, but the term house dust mite is reserved for the Pyroglyphidae family of mites (161). These are free-living organisms whose natural food sources include human skin scales, fungi, and other high-protein substances in the environment. They can be cultured using human skin shavings, dry dog food, or daphnia as substrates, and can be separated from the culture medium by flotation. Mites also can be separated from dust samples by flotation in saturated salt solution, retained by a sieve with 45 m openings, and differentiated from other retained material by crystal violet staining (162). The numerically dominant mite in European homes is Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; in North American homes Dermatophagoides farinae predominates.
If there are no Korotkoff sounds heard during that new lower systolic blood pressure buy discount viagra plus 400mg, a pulsus paradoxus is present buy viagra plus 400mg lowest price. It will not be possible to have the patient inspire slowly as during cardiac tamponade discount viagra plus 400mg. Thus purchase viagra plus 400 mg with visa, a patient with asthma may have a 10-mm Hg inspiratory fall at the systolic blood pressure and then at successively lower systolic pressures until there is no disappearance of Korotkoff sounds with inspiration. Some patients with acute asthma have pulsus paradoxus of 50 to 60 mm Hg because at each level of systolic blood pressure from 150 to between 90 and 100 mm Hg, there was a separate disappearance of Korotkoff sounds during inspiration over each 10-mm Hg drop. Experimentally, normal volunteers were asked to breathe through a resistance circuit in an attempt to produce pulsus paradoxus (16). It took the combination of increased lung volumes and marked airway obstruction to generate pulsus paradoxus. Arterial Blood Gases and Ventilation-Perfusion Inequalities Four stages of arterial blood gas patterns are presented in Table 22. The primary physiologic explanation for arterial hypoxemia in acute asthma is ventilation-perfusion ( / ) inequality (17). There is continued perfusion of very poorly ventilated alveoli resulting in low / ratios. It was determined that on average, 27% of pulmonary blood flow perfused very low / units, whereas in normal subjects, such very low / units do not even exist (17). Only two patients had evidence of perfusion of very high / units, and these patients also had 21% and 46% of their pulmonary perfusion using low / units (17). Diffusing Capacity In patients with status asthmaticus, after treatment to the point at which pulmonary function tests can be performed, diffusing capacity is preserved or even increased (17,18). In patients with asthma without status asthmaticus, the diffusing capacity should not be decreased either. There remains controversy as to what level of reduction of spirometry is needed ( 19). The spirometry returns to baseline within 60 minutes in nearly all cases and is not associated with a late bronchoconstrictive response. Nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness does not accompany isolated exercise-induced asthma. This observation is one reason for the controversy about the definition of exercise-induced asthma ( 19). If the patient repeats the exercise within 40 minutes of the first episode of bronchoconstriction, there will be a reduced bronchoconstrictive response to exercise ( 20). Exercise-induced asthma can also be produced by hyperventilation with frigid cold air ( 23). The mechanism of exercise-induced asthma is that of hyperventilation from exercise causing a heat flux of airway cooling followed by rewarming ( 23). The local hyperemia and airway wall vascular leakage participate in airways obstruction. In patients who have anxiety or who hyperperceive their sensation of dyspnea, use of home peak flowmeters may be of value to the patient and physician. Airway Hyperresponsiveness Patients with asthma have airway hyperresponsiveness to a variety of stimuli, such as histamine, methacholine, and leukotriene D4 ( 26). The recommended times to withhold asthma medications have been published by the American Thoracic Society, such as 48 hours for salmeterol and formoterol and 8 hours for albuterol ( 28). The classic challenge protocol uses five breaths to total lung capacity from a dosimeter and nebulizer system ( 28,29). Another protocol (American Thoracic Society) is that of a 2-minute inhalation from the nebulizer, with the previously described modified dosing schedule in which the patient takes tidal but not maximal inspirations during the methacholine inhalation ( 28). It is important to recall that methacholine hyperresponsiveness is sensitive for asthma but is a nonspecific finding (see Table 22. Even though the cause of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma remains unknown, decreases in methacholine hyperresponsiveness (but not resolution of it) occur with treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (30). Thus, in patients with asthma, especially those patients requiring oral corticosteroids, there is excessive bronchoconstriction to methacholine (as well as bronchial hypersensitivity). Small Airways Obstruction Small airways obstruction is present in patients with episodes of acute asthma and in the setting of persistent asthma. Various attempts have been made to identify the small airways that have an internal diameter of less than 3 mm. As stated, a reduction in total lung capacity is the initial evidence for restriction. In the case of acute avian hypersensitivity pneumonitis, the acute response can be obstructive, restrictive, or have evidence for both ( 32). In subacute avian hypersensitivity pneumonitis, 4 hours after exposure, obstruction or restriction similarly occurs ( 32). In chronic avian hypersensitivity pneumonitis, there can be reductions in diffusing capacity as well as obstruction or restriction. End-stage pulmonary fibrosis with severe restrictive defects and arterial hypoxemia can occur ( 33). Expert Panel Report 2: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma: clinical practice guidelines. Airways obstruction in patients with long-term asthma consistent with irreversible asthma. Lung function testing: selection of reference values and interpretative strategies. Acute bronchial asthma: Relations between clinical and physiologic manifestations. There are varied definitions of what constitutes an excess number of these cells in the circulation ( 1,2 and 3), but more than 400 cells/ L of blood would be considered excessive. This chapter focuses on the diagnosis and management of disorders characterized by eosinophilia. Paul Ehrlich gave the cell the name eosinophil in 1879 because of the intense staining of its granules with the acidic aniline dyes like eosin ( 5). The staining procedures he developed allowed the cell to be recognized and studied. The eosinophil count can be estimated by multiplying the percentage of eosinophils from the differential white blood cell count by the total number of white blood cells. For example, in our institution, if the percentage on the automated differential is 20% or greater, the blood smear will be examined manually. In patients with leukopenia, the percentages of eosinophils may be increased, but not their absolute number. The number of eosinophils in the blood has a diurnal variation, being highest at night ( 3,5) and falling in the morning when endogenous glucocorticoid levels increase ( 3). Thus, a condition promoting eosinophilia could e masked if it occurred in the presence of such events.
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