By C. Mine-Boss. Concordia University, Portland Oregon.
Domestic pets cheap 80 mg propranolol with mastercard, particularly cats cheap propranolol 40mg without prescription, have inﬂammation is poorly related to disease severity and also been associated with allergic sensitization generic 80mg propranolol overnight delivery, but may be found in atopic patients without asthma symp- early exposure to cats in the home may be protective toms discount propranolol 80mg online. A characteristic ﬁnding is thickening of the base- ment membrane caused by subepithelial collagen deposi- Occupational Exposure tion. This feature is also found in patients with Occupational asthma is relatively common and may eosinophilic bronchitis presenting as cough who do affect up to 10% of young adults. More than 200 sensi- not have asthma; it is therefore likely to be a marker of tizing agents have been identiﬁed. Chemicals, such as eosinophilic inﬂammation in the airway because toluene diisocyanate and trimellitic anhydride, may lead eosinophils release ﬁbrogenic factors. Individuals may often shed or friable, with reduced attachments to the also be exposed to allergens in the workplace, such as airway wall and increased numbers of epithelial cells in small animal allergens in laboratory workers and fungal the lumen. There is also vasodi- of asthma, including lower maternal age, duration of latation and increased numbers of blood vessels (angio- breastfeeding, prematurity and low birth weight, and genesis). Direct observation by bronchoscopy indicates inactivity, but are unlikely to contribute to the recent that the airways may be narrowed, reddened, and ede- global increase in asthma prevalence. The pathology of asthma is remarkably uniform association with acetaminophen (paracetamol) con- in different types of asthma, including atopic, nonatopic, sumption, which remains unexplained. One of the patchy, and this is consistent with bronchographic ﬁnd- main aims of treatment is to reduce this inﬂammation. The lumen is occluded with a Thickened basement mucus plug, goblet cell metaplasia is pre- membrane sent, and the airway wall is thickened, with Thickened airway an increase in basement membrane thick- smooth muscle ness and airway smooth muscle. There is inﬂammation in the respiratory mucosa from Mast cells are activated by allergens through an IgE- trachea to terminal bronchioles but with a predomi- dependent mechanism, and binding of speciﬁc IgE to mast nance in the bronchi (cartilaginous airways). The impor- able research has identiﬁed the major cellular components tance of IgE in the pathophysiology of asthma has been of inﬂammation, but it is still uncertain how inﬂamma- highlighted by clinical studies with humanized anti-IgE tory cells interact and how inﬂammation translates into antibodies, which inhibit IgE-mediated effects, reduce the symptoms of asthma (Fig. There are, dence that the speciﬁc pattern of airway inﬂammation however, uncertainties about the role of mast cells in more in asthma is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness chronic allergic inﬂammatory events. The pattern and cysteinyl-leukotrienes, but also several cytokines, of inﬂammation in asthma is characteristic of allergic chemokines, growth factors, and neurotrophins. However, an indistinguishable pattern of inﬂammation is found in intrinsic asthma, although Macrophages and Dendritic Cells this may reﬂect local rather than systemic IgE produc- Macrophages, which are derived from blood monocytes, tion. The mechanisms involved in persis- type of inﬂammatory response via the release of a cer- tence of inﬂammation in asthma are still poorly under- tain pattern of cytokines, but these cells also release anti- stood. Many inﬂammatory cells are ized macrophage-like cells in the airway epithelium, known to be involved in asthma, with no predominant which are the major antigen-presenting cells. Allergen inhalation results in a marked Sensitizers increase in activated eosinophils in the airways at the time Viruses of the late reaction. Eosinophil recruitment Inflammation Airway involves adhesion of eosinophils to vascular endothelial Chronic eosinophilic hyperresponsiveness bronchitis cells in the airway circulation due to interaction between adhesion molecules, migration into the submucosa under the direction of chemokines, and their subsequent activa- Symptoms Triggers Cough Allergens tion and prolonged survival. Neutrophils Increased numbers of activated neutrophils are found in Structural Cells the sputum and airways of some patients with severe asthma and during exacerbations, although there is a Structural cells of the airways, including epithelial cells, proportion of patients even with mild or moderate ﬁbroblasts, and airway smooth muscle cells, are also an asthma that have a predominance of neutrophils. The important source of inﬂammatory mediators, such as role of neutrophils in asthma, which are resistant to the cytokines and lipid mediators, in asthma. Indeed, because anti-inﬂammatory effects of corticosteroids, is currently structural cells far outnumber inﬂammatory cells, they unknown. Increased oxidative stress Multiple cytokines regulate the chronic inﬂammation of is related to disease severity, may amplify the inﬂammatory asthma. Chemokines are involved in attracting inﬂammatory cells from the bronchial circulation into the airways. Asthma smooth muscle cells by various growth factors, such as 67 may be regarded as a disease with continuous inﬂammation platelet-derived growth factor or endothelin 1, released and repair proceeding simultaneously. The bronchial circulation may play an important role in regulating airway caliber because an increase in the vas- Airway Epithelium cular volume may contribute to airway narrowing. There is an increase in the number of opment because all of these stimuli may lead to epithe- blood vessels in asthmatic airways as a result of angio- lial disruption. Microvascular leakage from function to allow penetration of allergens; loss of postcapillary venules in response to inﬂammatory medi- enzymes (e. Increased mucus secretion contributes to the viscid mucus plugs that occlude asthmatic airways, particularly Fibrosis in fatal asthma. There is evidence for hyperplasia of sub- In all asthmatic patients, the basement membrane is mucosal glands that are conﬁned to large airways and of apparently thickened due to subepithelial ﬁbrosis with increased numbers of epithelial goblet cells. Neural Effects Mechanical manipulations can alter the phenotype of airway epithelial cells in a proﬁbrotic fashion. Cholinergic pathways, through the release of acetyl- choline acting on muscarinic receptors, cause bron- choconstriction and may be activated reﬂexly in asthma. Airway Smooth Muscle Inﬂammatory mediators may activate sensory nerves, There is still debate about the role of abnormalities in air- resulting in reﬂex cholinergic bronchoconstriction or way smooth muscle is asthmatic airways. Inﬂammatory smooth muscle from asthmatic patients usually shows no products may also sensitize sensory nerve endings in the increased responsiveness to constrictors. Reduced respon- airway epithelium, such that the nerves become hyperal- siveness to β-agonists has also been reported in post- gesic. Neurotrophins, which may be released from vari- mortem or surgically removed bronchi from asthmatics, ous cell types in peripheral tissues, may cause proliferation although the number of β-receptors is not reduced, sug- and sensitization of airway sensory nerves. These may also release neurotransmitters, such as substance P, abnormalities of airway smooth muscle may be secondary which have inﬂammatory effects. In asthmatic airways, there is also a characteristic acteristically found in asthma, and these may lead to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle, irreversible narrowing of the airways. Population studies which is presumably the result of stimulation of airway have shown a greater decline in lung function over time 68 than in normal subjects; however, most patients with The mechanisms are not clear but are mediated through asthma preserve normal or near-normal lung function increased cholinergic bronchoconstriction. This observation need to be avoided in patients with asthma, and even suggests that the accelerated decline in lung function selective β2 blocker or topical application (e. The character- choconstrictors; however, they rarely worsen asthma, and istic structural changes are increased airway smooth the characteristic cough is no more frequent in asthmat- muscle, ﬁbrosis, angiogenesis, and mucus hyperplasia. Aspirin may worsen asthma in some patients (aspirin-sensitive asthma is discussed below under “Special Considerations”). Although the previous Exercise is a common trigger of asthma, particularly in view held that these should be avoided, it is now seen as children. The mechanism is linked to hyperventilation, evidence for poor control and an indicator of the need which results in increased osmolality in airway lining ﬂu- to increase controller therapy. It is therefore more common in sports such as bronchoconstrictor mediators, resulting in the early cross-country running in cold weather, overland skiing, response reversed by bronchodilators. It may be prevented tal allergen challenge is followed by a late response by prior administration of β2-agonists and antileukotrienes when there is airway edema and an acute inﬂammatory but is best prevented by regular treatment with inhaled response with increased eosinophils and neutrophils that glucocorticoids, which reduce the population of surface is not very reversible with bronchodilators. Perennial allergens are derived from cats and other domestic pets, as well as Cold air and hyperventilation may trigger asthma through cockroaches. Many patients report worsening of asthma in hot usually cause allergic rhinitis rather than asthma, but in weather and when the weather changes.
The study also showed tients performed specifc walking tests (single task = normal walk- that although the residual sensory and motor symptoms are com- ing in self-chosen gait speed propranolol 40 mg on-line, dual tasks = e generic 80mg propranolol amex. Results: i) Gait parameters such of patients even after their discharge form the rehabilitation unit effective propranolol 40mg. These gait changes worsened Introduction: A recent study1 failed to show improvements in cardi- under dual task conditions purchase propranolol 40mg mastercard. Thus, sensor-based gait analysis dur- orespiratory ftness through a home-based exercise program aimed ing defned clinical gait tests support clinicians in the assessment at improving the aerobic capacity through lower extremity exercise of postural stability. We performed a process evaluation ure to evaluate physical therapy interventions, rehabilitation pro- to explore reasons for the lack of effcacy by quantifying actual grams, and long-term monitoring e. Results: The attendance rate was high (median 89%), but none of the participants trained Implementation of Early Mobilization and Rehabilita- within the target heart rate range for more than 75% of the desig- tion in the Intensive Care Unit; a Quality Improvement nated time. The lack of effcacy on experience neuromuscular weakness that may be severe and muscle function does not support the assumption of deconditioning prolonged. With this, a cultural change and engagement towards ’mobilization and rehabilitation as early as *S. Conclusions: Using a structured and multidis- blinded study aims to compare the effect of high feedback versus ciplinary approach we increased early mobilization and rehabilita- low feedback about performance on the bedside exercise device tion activities for mechanically ventilated patients. Results: Fifty-one patients who have received a heart (n = 18) or liver (n = 33) transplantation *D. No signifcant be- Background: Surviving critical illness is often accompanied with tween-group difference was detected in outcomes of interest. However, evidence supporting this hypothesis life scores in physical functioning and vitality, and cardiorespira- is limited. To maintain these gains many patients may best bronchodilator therapy both in clinic and home administering require another “burst” of pulmonary rehabilitation. Patients treated at home showed associated with postoperative in-hospital rate of complications, a greater than those treated at hospital (Likert scale 4. No adherence difference in hospital and to some simple performance-based physical assessments, includ- home treatment was found. Results: A total of 217 patients commenced pulmo- Psychosomatic and Cognitive Aspects of In-Hospital Car- nary rehabilitation between 2003 and 2012. The study goal reduced following rehabilitation but only the anxiety component was to assess cognitive, psychic and somatic condition in post- was statistically signifcant (p < 0. Overall the participants were content with their life situation and quality of life. However, there was a Frailty and Exercise Capacity as Meaningful Parameters tendency with those with lower cognitive performance reporting for Postinterventional Care in Patients with Transcath- lower quality of life. Regarding life 1University of Potsdam, Potsdam, 2Sana-Herzzentrum Cottbus, situation, there was a tendency of lower quality of life with lower Cottbus, 3MediClin Reha-Zentrum Spreewald, Burg, 4Immanuel scores on the cognitive testing. Until now, there are no suffcient data about postinterventional treatment pathways. Our exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program included used as a theoretical framework for the 8-week online interven- both aerobic training and resistance training supervised by the tion. Each patient underwent cardiopulmonary ex- change methods such as providing information about risk and ben- ercise test and an isokinetic test (Cybex Norm dynamometer) to eft of behavior change, increasing self-effcacy, mobilization of measure muscular strength of knee extensors at 0 degree per sec- social support, barrier identifcation and planning. Follow-up measurement was detected in peak oxygen uptake and peak torque of knee ex- T2 was assessed after the 8 weeks intervention period (n = 209). The peak torque of knee extensor was signifcantly der and baseline behavior, respectively. Future re- the difference of peak oxygen uptake and difference of knee exten- search designing might want to include extra self-effcacy modules sor muscle strength at the beginning and end of cardiac rehabilita- (e. Conclusions: These data suggest exercise-based outpatient of rehabilitation recommendations into daily life. Association between Vitamin D Defciency and Impaired Physical Fitness in Cardiac Rehabilitation *O. The threshold of vitamin D defciency was 20ng/ml chosen according to the literature. Arm and shoulder morbidities were Effect of Outpatient Cardiac Rehabilitation Program on assessed by means of a newly developed questionnaire. Patients Knee Extensor Muscle Strength Among Patients with were asked to report their morbidities post-surgery retrospectively and whether they still had complaints. Results: Many women have Coronary Heart Disease reported several complaints post-surgery. Conclusion: Arm and strength in patients with coronary heart disease have not been fully shoulder complaints in sentinel node negative patients are not neg- elucidated. Long-term health problems related to breast Material and Methods: We enrolled 142 consecutive patients who cancer treatment and the quality of life are becoming more im- completed a 3-6 months outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program portant. Therefore information on arm and shoulder complaints in after acute myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary interven- sentinel node negative patients should be used to improve the re- tion or coronary artery bypass grafting as cardiac rehabilitation habilitation of these patients. Nowikiewicz functioning despite the fears of future, the chronic symptoms and Ludwik Rydygier’s Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus the decline in participation. Theoretical and practical lessons will be Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common tumor among discussed, including the requirement to establish functional inter- women in Poland. About 5000 women die every year because of ventions to help women’s self-management of their daily lives, in breast cancer. There was an improvement in emotional affects 55,000 individuals per year; over 280,000 individuals cur- functioning, feeling sick and unwell, and mental functioning af- rently live with oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. No statistically signifcant differences require surgery and radiation, which can lead to anatomical changes were noted in physical functioning, cognitive functioning, social in the base of the tongue, epiglottis, hypopharynx, larynx, and upper functioning, or sexual functioning before and after the procedure esophageal sphincter. The purpose of this presenta- is benefcial to women undergoing this procedure as it improves tion is to review the expected functional defcits from treatment for mental and emotional functioning. Prophylactic and models were used to identify personal and environmental factors pre-treatment swallowing exercises from a multidisciplinary head that affected return to work. Objectives: To describe, examine and and neck cancer team can increase maintenance of an oral diet as explain functional needs and participation level of women with well as optimize patients’ long term swallowing outcomes. Method: Sixty working wom- from cancer, patients continue to have improved prognoses and sur- en were recruited from oncology clinics, at least three months after vival. However with longer life expectancy, the medical community surgical intervention, previously healthy. Pearson correlations examined relations between participation measures and background factors. Keyword: cerebral palsy, language, motor munological functioning might serve as a biological pathway un- speech control derlying this association physical activity as well as oncological treatment. The aim of this study was Factors Associated with Respiratory Morbidity in Chil- to examine the association between physical exercises, QoL, fa- dren, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy tigue and infammatory cytokine levels at baseline and after 8 A. Methods: Cross sectional survey of respira- from pre- to post-intervention, and the difference were signifcant. Questionnaires were received gesting that regulation of fatigue-mediating cytokines by exercise concerning 552 eligible participants aged 0–26 years, (mean 11 may mediate improvements in fatigue symptoms components.
Some examples include total alkaloids [32–35] generic propranolol 80 mg on-line, total phenolics  40 mg propranolol with amex, total triterpenic acids  buy propranolol 40 mg amex, and to- tal tannins  cheap 80 mg propranolol overnight delivery. Furthermore, pre- or postchromatographic derivatization of the sample with suitable chemical re- agents may be employed for detection of the sample constituents. The potential of the phytochemical profling in quality control can be well appreciated in the reported detailed fngerprint profles generated with or without chemical mark- ers [17, 18, 25, 39]. In this way a lot of information can be generated with re- gard to even the unknown chemical constituents of the drug. The information so generated has a potential application in the identifcation of an authentic Chapter 19 Phytochemical Standardization 355 drug, in excluding the adulterants and in maintaining the quality and consis- tency of the drug . Some examples of reported work include fngerprint profles of oleogum resin of Dorema ammoniacum , Rosa damascena , Citrus aurantium spp. Such fngerprint profles are usually distinctive and would form a benchmark for the drug, especially when the identity of the active principles is not known or when chemical markers are not available. In this process, it is important to take into account all of the information available in the fngerprint analysis in toto to ascertain the quality of the sample. This phytochemical profle can form an important component of quality-control criteria for herbal drugs. The fnger- print profles are also useful for characterization of extracts showing specifc activity. Active principles: one or a few of the compounds specifc to the drug that are proved to be responsible for the claimed activity of the respective herbal drug [e. Chemical markers: compounds reported from the respective drugs, although not specifc to the drug, and activity specifc to the drug has also not been proven (e. For those plants for which active principles are known, their presence in the sample can be ascertained by cochromatography and comparison of the Rf and absorption spectra with that of the standards of the marker compounds. Wherever active principles are not known, fngerprint profles can include the general marker compounds. In addition, to have a complete picture of phytochemical profle, in the former case the fngerprint profles should also include the other marker compounds [31, 46]. Tracks 1 and 2, sample; track 3, E-guggulsterone standard; track 4 Z-guggulsterone standard Table 19. For example, E- and Z-guggulsterones in the oleogum resin of Com- miphora wightii. However, in most of the cases it is diffcult to fnd such specifc marker compounds. For example, vasicine, the active principle of Adhatoda vasica leaf, is the major alkaloid of the drug, and by virtue of it, it is an im- portant biomarker of Adhatoda vasica leaf. However, it cannot be considered as “marker compound” of Adhatoda vasica since it is present in other plants as well (e. Secondary metabolites are usually found to be pres- ent in many members of the same family and sometimes across several families , so much so that in chemotaxonomy some of the secondary metabolites are used to settle disputes regarding the classifcation of certain taxa. Considering the above, is it possible to fnd a specifc marker for each of the herbal drugs? Can we call the other compounds widely present, like gallic acid, quercetin, and rutin mark- ers, albeit general markers? The question remains whether such chemical con- stituents can be called “marker compounds” at all. If a compound is identifed that is specifc to a drug, but is not an active principle and is a minor constituent, can it still be called a marker by virtue of being specifc to the drug? It may best be left to the discretion of the scientist working with specifc herbal samples to decide which important chemical constituents to use in chemoprofling, with- out passing the judgment as to the chemical compound selected is a marker or not. In this scenario, the existing categorization of marker compounds as active principles, chemical markers, and general markers as described in the previous section may be taken into consideration. In the absence of known active principles any other compound/s that are predominantly present in the herb can be used as chemical markers. The multiple markers of a drug are usually a mixture of active principles and chemical markers. The different ingre- dients of a formulation contain important marker compounds, which can be active principles and/or chemical markers. Suitable extraction procedures are adapted to effect complete extraction of the compounds from the samples. The presence of the markers in a sample extract is ascertained by cochromatogra- phy of the sample extracts and standards of marker compounds and compari- son of the R /retention time and absorption spectra with that of the standardsf of the marker compounds. This is imperative because to resolve the maximum number of compounds for fngerprinting purposes, suitable mobile phases needed to be evolved. The mo- bile phase requirement for resolving specifc markers, however, can be differ- ent. The methods so developed help in identifying the presence of these impor- tant markers and indicate the presence of the respective raw materials in the formulation. Although multi- ple-marker-based evaluation ensures the quality with respect to the ingredients containing these marker compounds, it is practically impossible to have marker compounds specifc to each of the ingredients of the formulation. Furthermore, quan- tifcation of important marker compounds of the formulation forms an addi- tional parameter in maintaining the quality of the product [26–31, 64–67]. In fact, complete fngerprint profles should be established for all of the drugs and formulations, even in cases where active principles are known, keep- ing in view the possible synergistic activity of several chemical components of the herbal drugs. The profle so evolved by taking in to account all of the in- formation in toto, is distinctive for the drug and would form its benchmark, especially when the active principles are not known or when chemical markers are not available for analysis. A comprehensive specifcation for the drug would thus include fngerprint profles along with chemical marker/active principle analysis that would estab- lish identity and purity and, to an extent, ensure effcacy. The estimation of individual compounds from a particular raw material has two applications: 360 M. Track 1: authentic sample; Tracks 2 and 3: market samples b see next page Chapter 19 Phytochemical Standardization 361 Fig. If the compound happens to be one of the active principles, the analysis would ensure the quality of the raw material and the possible effcacy of the formulation in which it becomes a part (e. It will ensure the quality of the raw material when one is interested in extrac- tion of that compound as a bulk drug phytopharmaceutical (e. The potential of these methods should be exploited in deriving parameters as per the requirement. Hence, there is a need to make them available from a central facility by the Government before including the marker compound analysis in regulatory requirements. The plant is native to Central and Eastern Iran and the oleogum is imported into India for its domestic market. In Unani medicine it is being used as an expectorant, stimulant and antispasmodic. It is also used in the treatment of catarrh, asthma, chronic bronchitis, and enlargement of liver and spleen. Some of the chemical constituents include free salicylic acid, ammoresinol, doremone A, doremin, and ammodoremin .
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