By L. Myxir. Northwestern Oklahoma State University. 2018.
Nor is there good information to promote the growing and marketing of more nutritious foods buy pamelor 25mg visa, including fruits and vegetables cheap pamelor 25 mg fast delivery. Improving the efficiency and impact of the health budget Improving the efficiency and impact of the existing health budget by making better use of existing financial buy pamelor 25mg line, human order 25 mg pamelor otc, and other resources in the health sector is a major strategic priority for countries. The starting point for responding to the growing challenges in the health sector is to make sure that ministries of health are making the best use of existing financial and human resources. There is a good deal of capacity to strengthen the planning, priority setting, resource allocation, and financial management of existing budgets in the Pacific Island countries. Such efforts would help free up existing resources that can be allocated to higher impact and more sustainable investments. Reallocating scarce resources to well-targeted primary and secondary preventions is particularly relevant to achieve improved health outcomes in a way that is affordable, cost- effective, and financially sustainable. Primary and secondary prevention strategies for diabetes and hypertension are particularly important policy priorities for most countries in the Pacific given the high health, financial, and economic burdens that those diseases impose on countries. Every person who adopted a healthy lifestyle and was able to avoid diabetes or keep it under control would avert direct drug costs to government of up to $367 per person per year. Effective and targeted secondary prevention is an especially strategic and potentially cost-effective intervention. That is because the pool of people at risk of progressing to insulin is limited, so targeting can be better focused. Figure 13 shows there is a similar step wise increase in the pharmaceutical costs of treating hypertension in Vanuatu. Effective and well-targeted primary and secondary prevention similarly yields health benefits for the individual and significant and sustained cost savings to government. Figure 12 Average Pharmaceutical Cumulative Costs per Annum for One Diabetes Patient in Vanuatu 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Blood glucose Oral medication Oral medication Insulin stage* Insulin stage with testing strips (metformin) stage 2 additional (Glibenclamide) drugs** Progressive requirements of different stages of diabetes Source: (Anderson et al. The average annual cost at each stage of treatment was based on the actual unit cost of the main drugs and the dosage used at the various stages in treating diabetes in Vanuatu. Figure 13 Average Pharmaceutical Cumulative Cost per Annum for One Hypertensive Patient in Vanuatu 22 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Hydrochlorothiazide Add Enalapril Add Atenolol Add Simvastatin and Aspirin Progressive drug therapies beginning with Hydrochlorothiazide Source: Anderson et. The average annual cost at each stage of treatment was based on the actual unit cost of the main drugs and the dosage used at the various stages in treating hypertension in Vanuatu. But there is more to be done to improve the allocation and technical efficiency of public expenditure, and increase equitable outcomes. Recent analysis of the pharmaceutical diabetic costs in Vanuatu found that less than two percent of the population could be treated with insulin before the total government drug budget was exhausted. That analysis confirmed the overwhelming importance of allocating scarce resources to primary and secondary prevention efforts for high risk groups if treatment is to be financially sustainable for governments (Anderson et al. It is unclear whether Pacific Island governments are, in fact, focusing scarce resources on targeted prevention. Despite a lack of transparency and accountability in the use of public funds, it appears that the health outcomes for this older and privileged group were limited and modest at best, raising fundamental questions about the efficiency and equity gains in reallocating health resources. Strengthening the evidence base for improved investment Strengthening the evidence base is key to improving investment planning, program effectiveness, and ensuring value for money spent. French Polynesia, Cook Islands, Fiji, and Samoa are now in advanced planning or already undertaking surveys. Few, if any countries – or their development partners – are undertaking baseline studies prior to commencing interventions or seeking to measure the financial and broader resource cost (including human resources) of scaling up interventions, especially to more remote areas. Expanding the evidence base of “what works”, for whom, and at what cost, starting with a few key countries in the Pacific, would be a useful knowledge product and regional public good that policy makers throughout the Pacific could use to improve their resource allocation decision making. The Ministry of Agriculture could more actively promote the farming and marketing of fresh fruit, vegetables, and fish (perhaps by supporting investments in refrigeration at local markets) and restrict the use of land for small-scale tobacco leaf production. The Ministry of Communication could counter the aggressive marketing of unhealthy food and sugar-sweetened drinks, especially those deliberately targeted at children. The economic impacts, such as increased health expenditure, which is a greater proportion of income for the poor, job loss, and reduced productivity, tends to continue the poverty status (Murthy et al. Because high-fat, lower-fiber foods are usually cheaper than healthier alternatives, poorer people are generally more constrained to purchase low-cost food. Dietary choices, more sedentary lifestyles, and genetic factors have led to the obesity problem in the Pacific. As of 2015, just three of the 11 Pacific Possible nations do not meet this threshold. In addition, if diagnosed, poverty reduces the probability of complications being diagnosed early due to the inability to access, or lack of available quality healthcare. The greater diabetes prevalence in females is often due to the more sedentary lifestyle that women lead, causing obesity which is more prevalent among Pacific women than men (Ng et al. Unfortunately, diabetes is further known to precede the onset of heart disease and stroke (Hu, 2013). In the case of Papua New Guinea, the male smoking prevalence is more than double that of females (Eriksen, Mackay, Schluger, Gomeshtapeh, & Drope, 2015). The smoking prevalence of boys and girls in more than half of the world indicates no significant difference across the genders (Warren et al. Future health policies should begin to address the closing gender gap in smoking and identify ways to educate the female population particularly because they are more adversely affected by tobacco use. Designated caregivers often must interrupt their education or withdraw from the workforce which in turn impacts their security and health (Brands & Yach, 2002). Because females are more likely to assume the caregiving position, the aforementioned relationship is more burdensome for females than males. The correlation between the poor – often women and children – and ill health requires more gender-specific health policies (Brands & Yach, 2002). Growing sea levels and extreme weather events also damage agricultural systems and increase instances of malnutrition. Studies have shown that during heat waves, developing countries have reported increased mortality (Hajat, Armstrong, Gouveia, & Wilkinson, 2005). This increase is mainly due to an “overloading” of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and is more common among individuals who already suffer disease or weakness of these systems (Parsons, 2003). Heat waves are also known to increase hospital admissions, and consistently hot, arid climates can increase dehydration amongst the population resulting in the occurrence of kidney stones (Cramer & Forrest, 2006; Knowlton et al. Obese individuals reach higher core body temperatures more rapidly than their non-obese counterparts, initiating the associated symptoms of cardiovascular diseases (Dougherty, Chow, & Kenney, 2009). This problem is exacerbated if much of a country’s production is in primary industry where labor-intensive work is necessary. Growing global temperatures, combined with the Pacific’s humid, tropical environment, will escalate the impacts of obesity in the Pacific Islands (Bridger, 2003). As this report shows, all countries in the Pacific are dealing with the challenges of communicable diseases, reproductive health, and rapid population growth. Unfortunately, the capacity to respond to these growing challenges is constrained because of the already high absolute and relative levels of government expenditure on health. Given generally low or at least volatile economic growth, and limited capacity to increase tax revenue from a nascent private sector, governments have increasingly limited scope to allocate more resources for health in a way that is financially sustainable.
Inter- estingly discount 25 mg pamelor free shipping, infertility in either partner is considered incurable discount 25 mg pamelor overnight delivery; it is only if neither partner is found to be sterile that medical aids are deemed to be in order buy pamelor 25 mg with amex. Five recipes are then provided generic 25mg pamelor with visa, sometimes for the woman alone, sometimes for the man and woman together. Neither here nor in the vast majority of medieval medical texts are there any explicit instructions on how to conceive females. Those that this author advocates, interestingly, all rely on amulets or sympa- thetic magic (¶¶–), which derive from the author’s alternate source, the Book on Womanly Matters. It is notable that there is no reference here to any of the many herbs of presumed contraceptive or abortifacient properties de- scribed in a variety of readily available pharmacological texts. From the Viati- cum the author draws discussions of the causes of miscarriage (¶), care of the pregnant woman (¶a; ¶ in the present edition), common disorders of pregnancy (¶¶b and c; in the present edition, ¶¶ and , respectively), followed by a brief statement on the process of birth itself (¶), then aids for diﬃcult birth (¶¶–). Then, perhaps referring to Muscio’s Gynecology,the author adds the speciﬁc instruction that ‘‘the women who assist her ought not look her in the face, for many women are ashamed to be looked upon dur- ing birth’’ (¶). These, in turn, are followed by twelve remedies for ex- tracting the fetus that has died in utero (¶¶–). Recipes for removing the afterbirth (¶¶– and –) and treating postpartum pain (¶) follow, while a test to determine the sex of the fetus closes the text (¶¶–). Some of these obstetrical remedies derive from the Viaticum, though many of the rest reﬂect traditional practices, some of them magical, some strictly herbal. These consisted of both prenatal procedures and instruc- tions for attendance at the birth itself. Sneezing is to be induced; potions are to be prepared; a magnet is to be held in the hand; coral is to be suspended from the neck; the white substance found in the dung of a hawk is to be drunk, as are the washings from the nest and a stone found in the belly of a swallow. Here, too, we ﬁnd the explicit statement that ‘‘the womb follows sweet smells and ﬂees foul ones. The Book on the Conditions of Women is very much the oﬀspring of Greco- Roman and Arabic medicine. Although by no means slavish in its adherence to the Viaticum or its other sources, the points on which it diverges from its textual models are for the most part themselves reﬂections of the survival of certain ancient medical notions (the concept of uterine movement being the most prominent) through a probable combination of oral and literate trans- mission. The only distinctive indication that Conditions of Women is the prod- uct of a Christian culture is the prologue (¶¶–). A recasting of the creation story of Genesis (:– and :) into Galenic physiological terms, the pro- logue explains how woman’s subjugation to man allows reproduction to take place, which in turn is the chief cause of illness in the female body. The au- thor recasts Galen’s original view of man as the perfect standard (from which women then deviate) into a case of equal divergence of both men and women from a temperate mean. Lest the man tend too strongly toward his natural state of hotness and dryness,God desired that the male’s excess be restrained by the opposite qualities of the female, coldness and wetness. The author nevertheless leaves no doubt that this mutual ‘‘tempering’’ is not really a balancing out of equal oppo- sites: the man is ‘‘the more worthy person’’; heat and dryness are ‘‘the stronger qualities. A charm from a ﬁfteenth-century medical amulet (bottom row, left of center). The text in the circle surrounding the square reads: ‘‘Show this ﬁgure to a woman giving birth and she will be delivered’’ (Hanc figuram mostra mulierem in partu et peperit). Introduction sowing seed in a ﬁeld—a metaphor that, on the one hand, contradicts the text’s own assumption that women, too, have seed, yet on the other ﬁrmly reiﬁes the original Genesis dictum that the female is indeed subject to the male. It is because women are in fact weaker than men that they suﬀer so greatly in childbirth and that they are more frequently aﬄicted by illness, ‘‘especially around the organs assigned to the work of Nature. It was out of pity for their plight—and, it seems, because of the inﬂuence of one woman in particular— that the author, laboring ‘‘with no small eﬀort,’’ was induced to ‘‘gather the more worthy things from the books of Hippocrates, Galen and Constantine, so that I might be able to explain both the causes of [women’s] diseases and their cures. Conditions of Women, probably one of the ﬁrst attempts to synthesize the Galenic frame- work of the new Arabic medicine with older Hippocratic traditions, oﬀers, in eﬀect, what will become the foundation for later medieval Latin views of female physiology and pathology. Treatments for Women That Treatments for Women could have come out of the same general social milieu as Conditions of Women is an indication of how diverse twelfth-century southern Italian medical culture was. Despite their shared general subject mat- ter of women’s medicine, Treatments for Women and Conditions of Women are surprisingly diﬀerent in their theoretical outlook, their organizational struc- ture, and their social-intellectual origins. There are onlya few vaguely Galenic elements of theory, and its use of the com- pound medicines that were apparently introduced into Italy by Constantine the African is likewise limited. This is not to say that it has no medical theory that gives struc- ture to its therapeutic precepts; on the contrary, there are several consistent principles of female physiology and disease that underlie this seemingly ran- dom string of remedies. Treatments for Women takes these theoretical precepts for granted, however, rarely articulating a physiological (let alone an anatomi- Introduction cal) basis for the malfunctions of the female reproductive organs that it enu- merates. Treatments for Women makes its theoretical allegiances clear in its open- ing sentence: ‘‘So that we might make a succinct exposition on the treatment of women, it ought to be determined which women are hot and which are cold, for which purpose we perform this test. On the theory that ‘‘contraries are cured by their contraries,’’ for a woman suﬀering from heat the author recommends several ‘‘cold’’ substances—roses, marsh mallows, and violets—to be placed in water and administered by means of a vaginal suﬀumigation. In calling these substances ‘‘cold,’’ medieval medical theory did not mean that they were neces- sarilycold to the touch but that they induced a chilling eﬀect on the body when used as medicines. Thus, one of the leading Salernitan texts on materia medica, the Circa instans, described roses as cold in the ﬁrst degree (out of a possible four) and dry in the second; mallow was cold in the second degree and moist in the second; violets were cold in the ﬁrst degree and moist in the second. Likewise, women suﬀering from cold are to be treated with ‘‘hot’’ substances: pennyroyal (warm in the third, dry in the third), laurel leaves (warm and dry, no degree being speciﬁed), and small ﬂeabane (warm and dry in the third). The notion of elemental properties is part of the rational if unarticulated framework of diagnosis and therapy that underlies other treatments in the text. In ¶, ‘‘phlegmatic and emaciated’’ women and men who cannot conceive because they are too cold are treated with a bath of the ‘‘hot’’ herbs juniper, catmint, pennyroyal, spurge laurel, wormwood, mugwort, hyssop, ‘‘and other Introduction hot herbs of this kind. For uterine prolapse and induration caused by the ex- cessive size of the male member during coitus (¶), a cloth is to be anointed ‘‘with some hot oil, either pennyroyal or musk or walnut,’’ and placed in the vagina. This is to be fastened with a ligature ‘‘so that the womb recedes on its own and is made warm. Finally, pain in the womb can be caused by miscarriage or by menstrual retention, and this can be due either to cold or, more rarely, to excessive heat. If cold is the cause (¶), the symptoms will be pain and stabbing sensations in the left side; if hot (¶), a condition that itself is due to sexual activity, which dries out and heats up the womb, the signs will be great heat in the genital area. The therapy is accordingly constituted of ‘‘hot’’ herbs for a cold cause and ‘‘cold’’ herbs for a hot cause. The one exception seems to be the use of marsh mallow, a cold substance, to treat menstrual retention caused by frigidity. Here we may assume that the rationale was that all the other ‘‘hot’’ substances eﬀec- tively negated the minor cooling action of the mallow, thus allowing one of its secondary properties—that of provoking the menses—to come into play. In contrast to the attention paid to the elemental qualities ‘‘hot’’ and ‘‘cold,’’ humoral theory per se receives scant attention in Treatments for Women. Aside from the passing reference to ‘‘phlegmatic’’ thin women in ¶, a hu- moral causation is ascribed to only one condition, dysentery (¶). Here, dysentery is diﬀerentiated into that caused by phlegm and that caused by bile; the therapies diﬀer accordingly. In deﬁning ‘‘the diseases of women,’’ Treatments for Women includes most of the same categories as had Conditions of Women: menstrual irregularities, uterine prolapse, problems of fertility, diﬃculty of birth. Some are matters of nuance; others are more substantivelydis- tinctive conceptions of what kinds of problems women really have. Of princi- pal concern to the authorof Treatments forWomen is the promotion of women’s fertility.
The epidemic of chronic illness in the United States purchase 25mg pamelor fast delivery, particularly arterial disease and cancer 25mg pamelor free shipping, is the stellar embarrassment of medicine and its high-technology weapons cheap pamelor 25 mg with amex. What is worse 25 mg pamelor otc, many interventions, from prescription drugs to expensive surgery, cause more harm than good when they are overused or abused by doctors and patients. Ironically, the wonder drugs of the last century may never have worked as well as we thought. The great health improvements of the nineteenth century were not the result of medical interventions per se, but of basic improvements in nutritional and living conditions that coincided with (and often preceded) these interventions. The truth was that we got fewer infectious diseases in the twentieth century because we had better living conditions. For the first time in history, we had widespread modem sanitation, clean water and more and better food distribution than ever before. In the modem environment of civilized nations, infectious diseases disappeared because the breeding grounds for germs, such as open sewers, contaminated water supplies and malnourished bodies were largely eliminated. But medical science undeservedly took and received the greatest credit and public acclaim for these tremendous health improvements. And the medical community today is still trying to convince us that no matter what goes wrong with our bodies, the solution will always be found within the realm of drugs and surgery. Western culture made a grave error when it eliminated all natural approaches to health in favor of drugs and surgery. And as Beasely points out, it was extremely ironic that even though modem science has proven the importance and impact of such common sense factors as diet and relaxation on health, the medical community and consumers have almost completely ignored these findings. Medical scientists have proven the medical efficacy of natural urine and urea over and over again, but the medical community and drug companies have completely ignored these research findings – unless of course, a patentable drug form of urine such as Pergonal or Urokinase, can be developed. During this century, researchers sat in their laboratories and watched as simple urea or whole urine completely destroyed rabies and polio viruses, tuberculosis, typhoid, gonorrhea, dysentery bacteria and cáncer cells. They found that urine contains a huge array of incredibly valuable and medically important elements and they injected and orally administered urine and urea to thousands of patients in clinical tests. They watched as it saved the lives of cancer patients, cured and relieved asthma, eczema, whooping cough, migraines, diabetes, glaucoma, rheumatoid arthritis, and a host of other illnesses. Doctors and consumers today are given access to urine-related drugs, but have no idea of the tremendous overall value and health benefits of the natural urine that the drug was derived from. And medical researchers see absolutely no reason why any of us should know about it. Unlike naturally occurring medicines, chemical drugs are extremely concentrated synthetic substances. Yes, these abnormally high concentrations may seem to produce a "knock-out punch" to 40 disease symptoms, but what good is it if the drug delivers the same knock-out punch to your health as a whole? And one of the biggest reasons for this failure is that these modem epidemics are immune deficiency diseases which cannot be treated by immune-suppressing therapies such as drugs and surgery. They seem to temporarily win the battle against the symptoms of illness, but in the end they lose the wax because they suppress and destroy the very thing that makes and keeps us well – our own natural body defenses. Natural urine therapy was abandoned and forgotten by the public in the twentieth century because we were so sure that drugs and surgery were the answers to all our health problems. As we watch the often terrible and fatal consequences of decades of complete reliance on immune-suppressing synthetic drugs and surgical techniques unfold, we worriedly search the pages of history to rediscover and relearn the lost arts of caring for ourselves with simple, safe. Urine therapy is a natural therapy that is not widely known today, but in reality, it is not a lost healing art. As the material in this book shows, urine therapy has been kept very much alive by modem medical science throughout the twentieth century, even though it has rarely been publicized. In reality,-urine therapy cannot even be accurately classed as a traditional folk- remedy today, because during the twentieth century it has been used almost 41 exclusively by mainstream medical scientists and researchers and not by consumers themselves, but this is changing. So, in conclusion, it is the "surgery and drugs are all we need" philosophy of the present conventional medical system that is one major reason why you and your doctors have never heard of mine therapy. The reality is that medical researchers are not the ones who ultimately decide what medical treatments the public receives as a result of medical research studies. Medical research requires funding and from the very beginning of the age of modem medicine, researchers have largely depended on pharmaceutical companies to supply those funds. So many times we hear what the companies, and not the researchers, want us to hear about research discoveries. Now, while the owners of these drug companies may have had some altruistic interests, the lifeblood of their companies was not medicine, but money. And in simple economic terms, this is how any business survives and prospers — by selling and promoting the products that make the most money. Pharmaceutical firms by their very nature must promote profit-making medicines to keep their companies alive. The way our medical system works today, drug companies are the primary entities that fund research, and test and prepare medical treatments for government approval, and this is also true in many countries throughout the world. So a pharmaceutical company has to promote the medical approaches that will assure big "pay offs" in order for the company to survive. Metabolic synthetic steroids, once hailed as miracle muscle- builders and used freely, are now killing and maiming many of their users. Aspirin was considered to be the ultimate miracle fever and pain reducer until it was discovered that it causes the Reyes syndrome that can kill children and can also cause severe abdominal bleeding in adults. In a regrettable Catch-22, the main sources of information for the regulation of the pharmaceutical industry are the companies themselves. Despite the conflict of interest inherent in such situations, drug companies continue to be the major fonder of research on most common diseases and their potential treatment. And it is no surprise that the research focuses on finding new chemical methods of managing disease — or at least symptoms. Robbins or SmithKline or Ciba-Geigy to fund research on therapies (such as nutrition) that cannot be patented and will not significantly increase their market share? For example, 44 urea, has been shown to be a much safer, simpler, less expensive and more effective diuretic than the diuretic drug, Diamox (see Urea — New Use Of An Old Agent, next chapter). There are numerous research studies proving the effectiveness, safety and diverse medical applications of herbs, yet any conventional doctor you talk to will tell you that herbal medicine is ridiculously unscientific and ineffective. For instance, the herb Cinchona was originally used for treating malaria and has been clinically proven to be just as effective as the synthetic drug quinine - and the herb is safe and non-toxic. But even though millions of pounds of Cinchona were imported for medical use into the U. Because synthetic drugs, unlike herbs or other simple medicines, can be patented and sold for much more profit. But urea itself is extremely inexpensive and non-patentable so the truly important and often astounding medical breakthroughs using simple urea in research studies have never been given proper recognition, even though the researchers themselves have often stressed its importance and made repeated but unsuccessful attempts to bring the information to the attention of the medical community. Consumers, and especially doctors, over the last 50 years have been thoroughly and completely indoctrinated with the "a drug a day keeps disease away" promotion of the drug companies, and have neglected the simpler, safer methods like natural urine or urea therapy. And like the uninformed health-care consumers that so many of us are, we believe them. On the other hand, of the more than edicin that are available to anyone at anytime off any drug store or grocery store shelf, only 1/3 of them have ever been demonstrated to be safe or effective and all are proven to have dangerous potential side effects and overdoses can even cause death. So you are not only wasting your money when you buy products with such ingredients, but you are also risking your health and that of your family. William Gilbertson, only “about 1/3 of the ingredients reviewed by the panels have been shown to be safe and effective for their intended uses.
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