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Valeri A discount tadora 20mg free shipping, N eusy AJ: Acute and chronic renal disease in hospitalized 154 purchase 20 mg tadora visa. Rao TK tadora 20 mg online, Friedman EA: Outcome of severe acute renal failure in patients 131 discount 20mg tadora fast delivery. Rao TK, Friedm an EA: Renal syndrom es in the acquired im m unode- with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis 1995, ficiency syndrom e (AIDS): lessons learned from analysis over 5 years. Bourgoignie J: Glom erulosclerosis associated with H IV infection. Bourgoignie JJ: Renal com plications of hum an im m unodeficiency Contem p Issues N ephrol 1996, 29:59–75. Cantor ES, Kim m el PL, Bosch JP: Effect of race on expression of tal glomerulosclerosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N acquired im m unodeficiency syndrom e–associated nephropathy. Ann Intern M ed 1984, nephropathy: a detailed m orphologic and com parative study. Clin N ephrol 1984, and safety of cidofovir in patients with hum an im m unodeficiency 21:197–204. M azbar SA, Schoenfeld PY, H um phreys M H : Renal involvem ent in Chem other 1995, 39:882–886. Seidel EA, Koenig S, Polis M A: A dose escalation study to determ ine H ospital. H um phreys M H : H um an im m unodeficiency virus–associated 7:941–945. Rao TKS, Berns JS: Acute renal failure in patients with H IV infections. In m egalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS: the H PM C peripheral N ephrology, vol 1. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag; cytom egalovirus retinitis trial. Rashed A, Azadeh B, Abu Rom eh SH : Acyclovir-induced acute tubu- occurrence in specific risk groups. N Engl J M ed 1989, sulfadiazine in patients with AIDS. Carbone LG, Bendixen B, Appel GB: Sulfadiazine-associated obstruc- 165. J Am Soc induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasm a encephalitis. Cohen AH , N ast CC: H IV-associated nephropathy: a unique com - 143. Becker K, Jablonowski H , H aussinger D: Sulfadiazine-associated bined glom erular, tubular and interstitial lesion. M odern Pathol nephrotoxicity in patients with the acquired im m unodeficiency 1988, 1:87–97. Bourgoignie JJ, Pardo V: The nephropathology in hum an im m uno- 145. Tashim a KT, H orowitz JD, Rosen S: Indinavir nephropathy [letter]. Cohen AH : Renal pathology of H IV-associated nephropathy. Pardo V, Strauss J, Abitbol C: Renal disease in children with H IV 127:119–125. Com iter S, Glasser J, Al-Askari S: Ureteral obstruction in a patient 150:287–292. H um phreys M H : H um an im m unodeficiency virus–associated 149. Shuka RR, Kim m el PL, Jum ar A: M olecular biology of H IV-1 and of the genitourinary tract. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997, peritoneal dialysis and survival of H IV infected patients with end- 8:492A. Casanova S, M azzucco G, Barbiano di Belgiojoso G, et al. Kim m el PL, M ishkin GJ, Um ana W O : Captopril and renal survival in patients with hum an im m unodeficiency virus nephropathy. Korbet SM , Schwartz M M : H um an im m unodeficiency virus infection Kidney D is: 1996, 28:202–208. Kim m el PL, Phillips TM : Im m une-com plex glom erulonephritis associ- 182. W atterson M K, Detwiler RD, Bolin P Jr: Clinical response to pro- ated with H IV infection. Schectman JM , Kimmel PL: Remission of hepatitis B–associated mem- branous glomerulonephritis in human immunodeficiency virus infection. O uelette DR, Kelly JW , Anders JT: Serum angiotensin converting Am J Kidney Dis 1991, 17:716–718. Kusner DJ, Ellner JJ: Syphilis, a reversible cause of nephrotic syn- M ed 1992, 152:321–324. Rao TKS, Friedm an EA, M icastri AD: The types of renal disease in 205. Kim m el PL, Phillips TM , Farkas-Szallasi T, et al. N Engl J M ed 1987, nephropathy in patients with H IV infection. Bourgoignie JJ, Pardo V: H um an im m unodeficiency virus: associated im m unodeficiency virus on m aintenance hem odialysis. Berns JS: H em olytic urem ic syndrom e and throm botic throm bocy- 190. The clinical m anifestations of sar- coidosis are protean, depending on the affected organs; however, the principal targets of sarcoidosis are the lungs and thoracic lym ph nodes, which alm ost always are involved. As a rule, it is a disease of insidious onset that pursues a chronic course, with episodic rem is- sions and exacerbations. The severity and diversity of its clinical m anifestations depend on the extent of infiltrating granulom atous lesions of the involved organs and that of the num ber of affected organs. W hen diffuse and widespread the disease m ay pursue an acute fulm inant course. Diagnosis depends on dem onstration of the characteristic pathologic lesion of noncaseating granulom as within the affected organ. Sarcoidosis is a common (1 to 40 cases per 100,000 population) disease of the relatively young (mean age 40 years), with a proclivity for racial (3. Reports of community outbreaks, work-related risks, familial clustering, occurrence after organ transplantation, and experimental induction in animals by injection of affected tissue homogenates from humans strongly sug- gests an infective cause that remains to be identified. Two associated metabolic abnormalities of diagnostic and clinical import are elevated levels of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).

Other mental disorders discount 20 mg tadora with visa, including depression tadora 20mg lowest price, TABLE 67 20mg tadora mastercard. THE EFFECTS (ODDS RATIOS) OF substance use disorders purchase tadora 20mg with visa, oppositional-defiant disorder, con- COHORT IN PREDICTING LIFETIME ANXIETY DISORDERS IN SIX COUNTRIESa duct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, also have comparatively early ages at onset, although anxiety Age Group disorders are the temporally primary disorders in the vast 2 majority of people with a lifetime history of any mental 18–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 χ 3 disorder (34). No information is available, in comparison, Brazil 3. Although psychiatric epidemiologic surveys typically are From WHO International Consortium of Psychiatric Epidemiology: cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of cross-sectional, making it impossible to track illness course, mental disorders: an ICPE study. Bull WHO 2000;78:420, with indirect assessments of chronicity in these surveys have been permission. Age-at-onset distributions for any anxiety disorders in six countries. Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders: an ICPE study. The question implicitly addressed by specific lifetime mental disorders. Results clearly suggest these studies is whether it is in the financial interests of that anxiety disorders are the most chronic of all mental employers to invest in employee health care. This indirect evidence is consistent with the increased direct costs of treatment be offset by decreased results of longitudinal studies carried out in clinical samples, indirect costs in such things as sickness absence, poor work which uniformly show that anxiety disorders are typically performance, and accidents? This important question is dis­ very chronic (36–38). It is noteworthy that this high chron­ cussed below. However, even when the focus is on narrow icity is not greater than that found among a number of financial costs, the preceding is not the only question of impairing physical disorders, such as arthritis, asthma, and importance in evaluating the societal costs of illness. However, the combined occurrence of high life- Equally, if not more, important from a societal perspective time prevalence with early age at onset and high chronicity is the question of whether the human capital potential of makes anxiety disorders unique. The one chronic physical the individual is adversely affected by illness. Specifically, disorder with comparable lifetime prevalence and early what difference does the existence of a particular chronic onset, hay fever, is active for only a few weeks each year. Epidemiologic data also show that anxi­ ADVERSE EFFECTS ON SECONDARY ety is associated with elevated risk of subsequent unemploy­ OUTCOMES ment (42,43). Clinical experience also suggests that anxiety is associated Virtually all cost-of-illness studies focus on the effects of with more subtle decrements in role performance. It is com­ prevalent disorders on current role functioning, taking cur- mon for patients with chronic GAD or PTSD, for example, 986 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress to work at low-paying jobs because they are unable to cope of a day or working less efficiently than usual) during the with the stresses of higher paying jobs. This would be con­ month prior to the interview (51). Each of the six anxiety sidered a cost of illness from the societal perspective, but not disorders evaluated in that study (GAD, panic disorder, spe­ from the perspective of the employer. Very little scientific cific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and PTSD) had evidence exists regarding opportunity costs of this sort. The significant effects on work-cutback days, from a high of most sustained examination of these costs was carried out 4. None of the six was signifi­ (NCS) in which retrospective reports about the ages at onset cantly associated with work-loss days, implying that anxiety of individual mental disorders were used to define time- influences work largely by affecting the quality of perfor­ varying predictors of subsequent transitions in educational mance on days at work rather than by reducing the amount attainment (44), teen childbearing (45), marital timing and of time spent at work. The results clearly show The MIDUS survey yielded information that is even that mental disorders, in general, and anxiety disorders, in more interesting because it assessed both mental and physi­ particular, are associated with significantly elevated risks of cal disorders. Gross bivariate analyses showed that two men­ several different life course events that have important ad- tal disorders, both anxiety disorders, were among the top verse financial implications. In terms of standardized (for five of all chronic conditions in terms of average per capita sociodemographics) odds ratios, NCS respondents with number of past month work impairment days. These top some early-onset anxiety disorders had 40% elevated odds five included GAD (6. Further- ity, and 150% elevated odds of current unemployment at more, multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, and the time of interview. Calculating the salary- school failure coupled with teen childbearing and marital equivalent magnitude of these effects, using self-reported instability—makes up the core components of welfare de- salaries and partialing out the effects of other comorbid pendency. The costs of public assistance to single mothers mental and physical disorders, led to the estimate that the with dependent children are paid by all taxpayers rather excess absenteeism and lost productivity directly associated than by the welfare recipients themselves. For this reason, with anxiety disorders is approximately $4. Anumber of innovative welfare-to-work programs are currently being carried out in response to wel­ PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITY fare reform legislation in the United States (e. Interestingly, early reports on these programs suggest that Anumber of studies in both treatment samples (52) and their success hinges on the mental health of welfare recipi­ general population samples (35) document high rates of ents (49). Illustrative results from the NCS are reported in Table 67. Shown here are odds ratios between anxiety disorders EFFECTS ON CURRENT ROLE FUNCTIONING and other mental disorders both for lifetime comorbidities and for comorbidities of disorders that were active in the As noted in the previous subsection, a number of cost-of- 6 months prior to the interview. As the latter odds ratios illness studies have evaluated the effects of chronic condi­ are generally larger than the former, there must be comor­ tions on work role functioning. Most of these studies focus bidities between the persistence of anxiety disorders and the on physical disorders (e. Most of those concerned persistence of other disorders. Asmall Several different possible explanations exist for these number of recent studies examined the effects of anxiety comorbidities. One is that prior history of other mental disorders on work functioning and found that these effects disorders might be associated, either as a risk factor or as a are quite substantial. These findings are an important ele­ marker, with risk of the subsequent onset and persistence ment in the argument that anxiety disorders are among the of anxiety disorders. The other is that anxiety disorders most costly of all chronic conditions. As briefly mentioned above, effects of individual mental disorders on work loss (missing epidemiologic studies have found that the latter possibility a full day of work) and work cutback (either missing part is more consistent with the data. Comorbid anxiety disor- Chapter 67: The Economic Burden of Anxiety and Stress Disorders 987 TABLE 67. COMORBIDITIES (ODDS RATIOS) BETWEEN DSM-III-R ANXIETY DISORDERS AND OTHER MENTAL DISORDERS ASSESSED IN THE NATIONAL COMORBIDITY SURVEY Panic Disorder Phobias GAD PTSD Lifetime comorbidities Major depression 6. DSM-III-R, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition–revised; GAD, generalized anxiety disorder; PTSD, posttraumatic stress disorder. Six-month nonaffective psychosis (NAP) was too rare to calculate odds-ratios with any of the anxiety disorders. In addition, survival analyses show that costly of all mental disorders (5).

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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996;35: relationships among disorders buy tadora 20 mg mastercard. Schizophrenia with onset before the age of eleven: clinical characteristics of onset and course cheap tadora 20mg on-line. J ment quality 20 mg tadora, sexual differentiation tadora 20mg free shipping, and maturation of the central Autism Dev Disord 2000;30:29–40. Premorbid speech understanding of the complex, diverse contributions to the and language impairments in childhood-onset schizophrenia: as- development and maintenance of psychotic disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1988; comfort and better functioning to the patients and families 27:462–465. Hallucinations in children with conduct and emo- tion, a real prospect of finding protective factors and preven- tional disorders. Psychol Med 1984;14: tive interventions that can avert the worst manifestations of 597–604. Hallucinations in children with conduct and emo- tional disorders: the clinical phenomena. Neuro-cognitive pathways in the devel- REFERENCES opment of schizophrenia. Psychotic symp- and other psychiatrically disturbed children. J Child Psychol Psy- toms in prepubertal major depressive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychia- more: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. Development of psychotic thinking in Macmillan, 1867. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991: Sper Feniatr Med Leg 1906;32:141. Brief report: thought disor- [Reprinted in Howells JG, ed. Comparison with high functioning child psychiatry Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1969. Disorder Scale: clinical assessment, reliability, and validity. Nerv Child 1943;1: Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1989;28:408–416. Phenomenology and Chapter 45: Psychosis in Childhood 623 classification of the childhood psychoses. Psychol Med 1988;18: instrument for the assessment of onset and early course of schizo- 191–201. The interview schedule for children (ISC), 10th rev. Assessment and diagnosis of child and adolescent psychiatric Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-2). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996;35:865–877. The group of hypotonic and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (Kiddie-SADS). Schizophr Bull York: New York State Psychiatric Association, 1978. Child Adolesc Psychi- affective disorders in children and adolescents by semistructured atr Clin North Am 1994;3:31–43. Issues in the classification of ders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children, Present Episode pervasive and other developmental disorders: toward DSM-IV. Conceptualizing system markers of psychopathology in childhood onset schizo- 'borderline syndrome of childhood' and 'childhood schizophre- phrenia. Diagnostic rules for children with onset schizophrenia. Childhood onset schizo- Psychol Psychiatry 1998;39:911–919. Progressive cortical children with multiple complex developmental disorder. JAm change during adolescence in childhood onset schizophrenia: a Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1998;37:100–112. Preliminary study of frontal lobe Adolesc Psychiatry 1997;36:1552–1559. Obsessive-difficult temperament and its Reson Imaging 1998;8:841–846. The current age of youthful melancholia: evidence Psychiatry 1996;35:916–920. New York: International Universities Press, 1911:195. Child and adolescent mania: diagnostic considera- 50. Age of onset in bipolar affective disorder and misdi- justment, onset pattern and severity of impairment. Practice parameters for the assessment onset psychosis: Comparison between outcome diagnoses of and treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia. J schizophrenia, mood disorders and personality disorders. J Autism Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1994;33:616–635. Early onset psychotic disorders: diag- in adolescents followed upto 2years after hospitalization. Assessing depression in prepubertal chil- schizophrenia: a follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Ad- with childhood onset: phenomenological study of 38 cases. The clinical presentation of childhood-onset schizo- and adolescent dissociative disorders. Subclinical hallucinations and of diagnosis and symptom dimensions in a systematic sample delusions in nonpsychotic adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry of patients with onset of schizophrenia in childhood and early 1997;38:413–420. Practice guideline for the treat- in pediatric complex partial seizure disorder. J Child Psychol Psy- ment of patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154: chiatry 1992;33:1399–1412. Neuroleptic malignant syn- nencephalitis presenting as childhood psychosis: a case study.

Transfer of asthma management responsibility from parents to their school-age children cheap 20mg tadora free shipping. Craig P purchase tadora 20mg without prescription, Dieppe P purchase 20mg tadora, Macintyre S buy 20 mg tadora with visa, Michie S, Nazareth I, Petticrew M, et al. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. Hewitt CE, Gilbody SM, Brealey S, Paulden M, Palmer S, Mann R, et al. Methods to identify postnatal depression in primary care: an integrated evidence synthesis and value of information analysis. Juniper EF, Guyatt GH, Feeny DH, Ferrie PJ, Griffith LE, Townsend M. Bukstein DA, McGrath MM, Buchner DA, Landgraf J, Goss TF. Evaluation of a short form for measuring health-related quality of life among pediatric asthma patients. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 65 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 67 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 # Query Results S139 TI ( “primary care” N1 (visit* or contact* or attendance* or admission* or episode*) ) OR AB 796 ( “primary care” N1 (visit* or contact* or attendance* or admission* or episode*) ) S138 TI ( number N2 (nights or days) ) OR AB ( number N2 (nights or days) ) 2300 S137 TI ( (patient* or inpatient* or in-patient*) N1 (cost* or stay*) ) OR AB ( (patient* or inpatient* or 5482 in-patient*) N1 (cost* or stay*) ) S136 TI “hospital day*” OR AB “hospital day*” 827 S135 TI time N2 discharg* OR AB time N2 discharg* 1206 S134 TI “hospital cost*” OR AB “hospital cost*” 1254 S133 TI ( hospital N1 (access* or uptake or visit* or attendance* or admission* or admit* or episode*) ) OR 9825 AB ( hospital N1 (access* or uptake or visit* or attendance* or admission* or admit* or episode*) ) S132 TI duration N2 stay OR AB duration N2 stay 840 S131 TI length N2 stay OR AB length N2 stay 11,520 S130 (MH “Health Resource Utilization”) OR (MH “Health Resource Allocation”) 18,081 S129 (MH “Readmission”) 5960 S128 (MH “Hospitalization”) OR (MH “Length of Stay”) OR (MH “Patient Admission”) 48,675 S127 TI budget* OR AB budget* 6666 S126 TI (value N1 money) OR AB (value N1 money) 447 S125 TI (expenditure* not energy) OR AB (expenditure* not energy) 5192 S124 TI ( econom* or cost or costs or costly or costing or price or prices or pricing or pharmacoeconomic* ) 112,768 OR AB ( econom* or cost or costs or costly or costing or price or prices or pricing or pharmacoeconomic* ) S123 (MH “Health Care Costs+”) 34,309 S122 (MH “Economic Aspects of Illness”) 5807 S121 (MH “Economics, Dental”) 96 S120 (MH “Economics, Pharmaceutical”) 1694 S119 (MH “Economic Value of Life”) 488 S118 (MH “Costs and Cost Analysis+”) 75,720 S117 (MH “Economics”) 9773 S116 S92 OR S93 OR S94 OR S95 OR S96 OR S97 OR S98 OR S99 OR S100 OR S101 OR S102 OR S103 OR 398,552 S104 OR S105 OR S106 OR S107 OR S108 OR S109 OR S110 OR S111 OR S112 OR S113 OR S114 OR S115 S115 (MH “Mental Health”) 17,397 S114 TI “school refusal” OR AB “school refusal” 49 S113 (MH “Panic Disorder”) 1597 S112 (MH “Phobic Disorders+”) 3618 S111 (MH “Bipolar Disorder+”) 7408 S110 (MH “Schizophrenia+”) 16,421 S109 (MH “Eating Disorders+”) 11,947 S108 (MH “Psychotic Disorders+”) 77,469 S107 (MH “Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic+”) 13,346 S106 (MH “Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder+”) 3756 S105 (MH “Affective Disorders+”) 71,774 68 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 69 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 # Query Results S70 (MH “Psychoeducation”) 1836 S69 (MH “Psychotherapy, Group”) 4012 S68 (MH “Psychotherapy, Brief”) 753 S67 TI ( (behavior* or behaviour*) N1 (manag* or modif*) ) OR AB ( (behavior* or behaviour*) N1 3662 (manag* or modif*) ) S66 (MH “Behavior Modification”) 1651 S65 (MH “Behavior Therapy”) 7714 S64 TI “parent* training” OR AB “parent* training” 455 S63 (MH “Parenting”) 10,162 S62 (MH “Social Media”) 2963 S61 (MH “Blogs”) 2147 S60 (MH “Internet”) 33,921 S59 (MH “Bibliotherapy”) 308 S58 TI ( “educational material*” or leaflet* or booklet* or toolkit* ) OR AB ( “educational material*” or 5141 leaflet* or booklet* or toolkit* ) S57 (MH “Pamphlets”) 2455 S56 (MH “Teaching Materials”) 9621 S55 TI ( CBT or “cognitive therap*” or “cognitive behav*” ) OR AB ( CBT or “cognitive therap*” or 7897 “cognitive behav*” ) S54 (MH “Cognitive Therapy”) 12,009 S53 (MH “Motivational Interviewing”) 1517 S52 (MH “Exercise+”) 67,755 S51 (MH “Diet+”) 71,326 S50 TI ( “goal set*” or “individual goal*” )ORAB(“goal set*” or “individual goal*” ) 1364 S49 TI ( decision* N2 (shared or support* or aid or aids or making) ) OR AB ( decision* N2 (shared or 31,517 support* or aid or aids or making) ) S48 (MH “Goal-Setting”) 3952 S47 (MH “Decision Making”) 29,422 S46 TI ( “contingent payment*” or “deposit contract*” )ORAB(“contingent payment*” or “deposit 2 contract*” ) S45 TI ( ((financial or monetary or money) N2 (incentive* or competition* or contest* or lotter* or reward* 1528 or prize*)) ) OR AB ( ((financial or monetary or money) N2 (incentive* or competition* or contest* or lotter* or reward* or prize*)) ) S44 (MH “Consumer Health Information”) 9291 S43 TI nurse N2 educator* OR AB nurse N2 educator* 3624 S42 TI ( (“consumer health” or patient) N1 information ) OR AB ( (“consumer health” or patient) N1 3409 information ) S41 TI ( patient N2 (educat* or advice or advis* or instruct* or instruct* or train* or coach*) ) OR AB 11,053 ( patient N2 (educat* or advice or advis* or instruct* or instruct* or train* or coach*) ) S40 (MH “Patient Education”) 49,243 S39 TI ( involv* or participat* or collaborat* ) OR AB ( involv* or participat* or collaborat* ) 236,994 S38 (MH “Consumer Participation”) 12,803 70 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 71 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 # Query Results S8 TI ( self-monitor* or selfmonitor* or self-report* or selfreport* ) OR AB ( self-monitor* or selfmonitor* 34,036 or self-report* or selfreport* ) S7 TI ( self-manag* or selfmanag* ) OR AB ( self-manag* or selfmanag* ) 6324 S6 TI ( self-care* or selfcaring or selfcare* or selfcaring ) OR AB ( self-care* or selfcaring or selfcare* or 8332 selfcaring ) S5 (MH “Self Care”) 23,936 S4 S2 NOT S3 1589 S3 TI ( self-administer* N2 (questionnaire* or survey* or interview*) ) OR AB ( self-administer* N2 4926 (questionnaire* or survey* or interview*) ) S2 TI self-administer* OR AB self-administer* 6515 S1 (MH “Self Administration+”) 4246 The Cochrane Library (via Wiley Online Library) Date searched: 18 March 2015. The same search strategy was used across all five databases: 1. Search strategy #1 MeSH descriptor: [Self Administration] this term only (653) #2 self next administer*:ti,ab,kw (2287) #3 (self next administer* near/2 (questionnaire* or survey* or interview*)):ti,ab,kw (792) #4 #2 not #3 (1495) #5 MeSH descriptor: [Self Care] this term only (2833) #6 (self next care* or selfcaring or selfcare* or selfcaring):ti,ab,kw (4256) #7 (self next manag* or selfmanag*):ti,ab,kw (2420) 72 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 73 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 #32 ((telephon* or remote or phone) near/2 (follow* or support* or consult* or advice or advis* or intervention* or instruct* or assist* or educate or education or information or monitor*)):ti,ab,kw (2831) #33 MeSH descriptor: [Case Management] this term only (652) #34 (case next manag* or action next plan* or care next plan* or care next manag* or management next plan* or management next program* or care next program* or goal next setting or individual next goal*):ti,ab,kw (6445) #35 MeSH descriptor: [Patient Participation] this term only (890) #36 (involv* or participat* or collaborat*):ti,ab,kw (72,418) #37 MeSH descriptor: [Patient Education as Topic] this term only (6657) #38 patient next education:ti,ab,kw (8086) #39 (patient near/2 (educat* or advice or advis* or instruct* or train* or coach*)):ti,ab,kw (8784) #40 ((consumer next health or patient) next information):ti,ab,kw (553) #41 (nurse near/2 educator*):ti,ab,kw (73) #42 ((financial or monetary or money) near/2 (incentive* or competition* or contest* or lotter* or reward* or prize*)):ti,ab,kw (513) #43 (contingent next payment* or deposit next contract*):ti,ab,kw (17) #44 MeSH descriptor: [Decision Making] this term only (1692) #45 (decision* near/2 (shared or support* or aid or aids or making)):ti,ab,kw (7150) #46 (goal next set* or individual next goal*):ti,ab,kw (446) #47 MeSH descriptor: [Diet] explode all trees (12,385) #48 MeSH descriptor: [Exercise] explode all trees (14,181) #49 MeSH descriptor: [Motivational Interviewing] this term only (136) #50 MeSH descriptor: [Cognitive Therapy] this term only (5146) #51 (CBT or cognitive next therap* or cognitive next behav*):ti,ab,kw (9693) #52 MeSH descriptor: [Teaching Materials] this term only (383) #53 MeSH descriptor: [Pamphlets] this term only (623) #54 (educational next material* or leaflet* or booklet* or toolkit*):ti,ab,kw (1977) #55 MeSH descriptor: [Bibliotherapy] this term only (105) 74 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 75 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 #81 (parent* or mother* or father* or caregiver* or carer* or guardian* or advocate* or family):ti,ab,kw (40,218) #82 #76 or #77 or #78 or #79 or #80 or #81 (182,717) #83 MeSH descriptor: [Diabetes Mellitus] explode all trees (16,726) #84 MeSH descriptor: [Cystic Fibrosis] this term only (1102) #85 mucoviscidosis:ti,ab,kw (33) #86 MeSH descriptor: [Asthma] explode all trees (9404) #87 MeSH descriptor: [Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders] explode all trees (1865) #88 MeSH descriptor: [Hyperkinesis] this term only (168) #89 MeSH descriptor: [Anxiety] explode all trees (5226) #90 MeSH descriptor: [Depression] this term only (5541) #91 MeSH descriptor: [Depressive Disorder] this term only (4754) #92 MeSH descriptor: [Self Mutilation] this term only (25) #93 MeSH descriptor: [Self-Injurious Behavior] this term only (205) #94 MeSH descriptor: [Epilepsy] explode all trees (2311) #95 MeSH descriptor: [Conduct Disorder] explode all trees (179) #96 MeSH descriptor: [Mood Disorders] explode all trees (9310) #97 MeSH descriptor: [Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder] explode all trees (662) #98 MeSH descriptor: [Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic] this term only (972) #99 MeSH descriptor: [Psychotic Disorders] explode all trees (1562) #100 MeSH descriptor: [Eating Disorders] explode all trees (838) #101 MeSH descriptor: [Schizophrenia] explode all trees (4966) #102 MeSH descriptor: [Bipolar Disorder] explode all trees (1601) #103 MeSH descriptor: [Phobic Disorders] this term only (847) #104 MeSH descriptor: [Panic Disorder] this term only (758) #105 school next refusal:ti,ab,kw (14) 76 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 77 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 #131 ((patient* or inpatient* or in-patient*) next (cost* or stay*)):ti,ab,kw (772) #132 (number near/2 (nights or days)):ti,ab,kw (1889) #133 (primary next care next (visit* or contact* or attendance* or admission* or episode*)):ti,ab,kw (139) #134 (surgery next (visit* or contact* or attendance* or admission* or episode*)):ti,ab,kw (36) #135 (GP next (access or uptake or visit* or contact* or attendance* or admission* or episode*)):ti,ab,kw (65) #136 ((uptake or access) next (service* or care or intervention*)):ti,ab,kw (39) #137 ((clinic or surgery or hospital or “accident and emergency”) near/2 (work-flow or work next flow)): ti,ab,kw (2) #138 (consultation* near/2 (time or length)):ti,ab,kw (116) #139 (hospitalisation* or hospitalization* or rehospitalisation* or rehospitalization* or re-hospitalisation* or re-hospitalization*):ti,ab,kw (15,517) #140 (hrql or hrqol or “h qol” or h-qol or hql or hqol):ti,ab,kw (1887) #141 MeSH descriptor: [Quality-Adjusted Life Years] this term only (3773) #142 (qaly* or “quality adjusted life” or “quality of life” or “life quality”):ti,ab,kw (37,642) #143 {or #108-#142} (97,676) #144 #20 or #75 (169,797) #145 #144 and #82 and #107 and #143 (1739) #146 “Cool Kids”:ti,ab,kw (3) #147 “Sweet talk”:ti,ab,kw (2) #148 “Timid to Tiger”:ti,ab,kw (0) #149 “problem solving for life”:ti,ab,kw (2) #150 “Incredible Years”:ti,ab,kw (67) #151 “Triple P”:ti,ab,kw (77) #152 friends next program*:ti,ab,kw (12) #153 #146 or #147 or #148 or #149 or #150 or #151 or #152 (162) #154 #145 or #153 (1894) 78 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 79 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 81 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. The IDEAS search interface is only suitable for one-word or phrase searching, so a number of small searches were conducted to identify potentially relevant records (e. The search results were cut and pasted into word documents to enable scanning. Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) Date searched: 18 March 2015. Internet/ or Blogging/ or Social Media/ (52,994) 55. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 83 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. Cell Phones/ or Telephones/ or Text Messaging/ or Reminder Systems/ (16,546) 69. Self Mutilation/ or Self-Injurious Behavior/ (8004) 88. The PEDE search interface is only suitable for one word or phrase searching so a number of small searches were conducted to identify potentially relevant records (e. A total of 480 potentially relevant records were downloaded. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 85 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 PsycINFO (via OVIDSP) Date searched: 17 March 2015. Cellular Phones/ or Telephone Systems/ or Messages/ (9003) 69. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 87 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising.

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